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HISTORY AND GROWTH OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN EARLY CENTURIES-SERIES 2
BZy \qmpIfnse {InkvXob hnZym`ymkns Ncn{Xhpw hfbpw 2

By Dr. Rajan Mathew B.E., M.E., Ph.D.

BACK GROUND SETTING OF CHRISTAN EDUCATION IN EARLY CENTURIES
{InkvXobXbvpw {InkvXobhnZym`ymkn\pw thnbp ]cnnXn {IaoIcWw

]pXnb\nbansbpw BZyIme {InkvXym\nXznsbpw Ncn{X]camb {IaoIcWw, {][m\ambpw cm{obhpw, kmaqlnIhpw, kmwkvImcnIhpw, ssZhimkv{X]chpw, Zmi\nIhpw, hnZym`ymk]chpamb ImgvNmSmWv. cm{obamb ]mes kw_nnStmfw ]qamb biv tdma km{amPyn\msWnepw, kmwkvImcnI, hnZym`ymk, XzNnbpsS BXynIamb ISmSv {Kov kwkvImcnt\mSmWv. Fm ssZhimkv{X]chpw hnZym`ymk]chpw aX]chpamb ]mens ImXemb Ak blqZ temIntXmbncpp. BZyIme {InkvXp aXns ]cnnXn blqZmcpsSbpw tbiphnsbpw tbiphns injymcpsSbpw kztZiamb ]ekvXo Bbncpp. B.C. 586 apX B.C. 331 hscbp ImeLn _m_ntemWnbcpw [Babylonians] t]jymcpw [Persians] blqZmsc ]nSnSn. Amev ^ekvXo [Palestine], saskmsmtanb [Mesopotamia] FnhnSfnse an PqXmcpw s]mXp]cn]mSnIġmbn _m_ntemWnbbpsS HutZymKnI `mjbmb Acamb [Aramaic] `mj XfpsS amXr`mjbmbn kzoIcnp. sl\nI bpKns [Hellenistic era] DZb Imebfhn ]mekvXo\nse hnZym`ymk clnXcmb km[mcW P\kaqln ln{_p`mj [Hebrew] A\yw \np XpSnbncpp. sl\nI bpKn\pw, B.C. 331 alm\mb AeIvkm [Alexander The Great] ]mekvXos\ IogSnbXn\pw hfsc ap]p Xs ]ekvXo P\Xsb {KopIm kzm[o\nncpp. B.C. Amw \qmn t]mepw ]mekvXo\nse {Kov IeI, Ifna ]m{X Fnh hfsc {]nbcambncpp. Cu {]tZip kcmb P\ {Kov inev]nIfm sImnsbSp am_n sImmWv ihIpSoc AecnncpXv. B.C. 450 {KopIm {Ibhn{Ibn\v \mWb Ip]nSntm, {Kov \mWbsf A\pIcnp kzw shn \mWb ASnm bqZmv A\phmZw \Inbncpp.

blqZaXntep Cu bh\NnmKXnbpsS A\pcq]oIcWw BZyIme {InkvXob hnZym`ymkns Dhn\p ]mesamcpn. BZyIme {InkvXobXbvv {Kov-tdmatemIs [Greco-Roman] Ghpw {][m\amb IhmShgn [Gateway] Ubkvt]md kn\tKmKpI [Diaspora synagogues] \Inbncpp BZyIme {InkvXym\nI ]eXcw kmwkvImcnI kzm[o\fp Hcp temIn Pohnp. {InkvXpaXns Bhn`mhn\p app ainlm [Messiah] F kw blqZmcpsS hcphm\ncnp cI F \nebn Hcp {]Xymi Bbncpp. A{]Imcw \ne\nncp ainlm F iojIw {InkvXphns {]m[m\yw hymJym\nphm {InkvXp A\p`mhnI XpSpw {]tbmP\sSpn. shfnsSpph Asn cI [Revealer/Redeemer] F m\hmZns [Gnostic idea] Bibw Ctmgpw ]cnI]\bn ]qWX t\Snbncpn. kvtmbnknkw [Stoicism] , \nKqVX [Mysteries] , Ip{am kapZmb [Qumran community] XpSnbhcpambn At\Iw BfpI _sncpp. AXpsImv {InkvXobX XnIpw Hcp ]pXnb Bibtam {]tbmKtam Bbn Ah ]cnKWncpn.

cm{ob ]me [Political Backgrounds] :
{InkvXob hnZym`ymkns Bhn`mhw tdmamkm{amPynsbpw AXnse N{IhnIfpsSbpw Ncn{Xhpambn hym]Iambn _sp InSpp. Cu temInse tbiphns ZuXyns Ncn{Xw Bcw`npXv tdma `cWtmSp _s k`fnemWv. tdmam N{Ihnbmb kok AKkvkns [Caesar Augustus] \nIpXn Npam\p X{]camb Dchns Imev tdmamkm{amPynse Hcp {]hniybn tbip P\np. tbip ]oUnnstijw, {IqinsSpIbpw ]p\cpm\w {]m]npIbpw sNbvXXv tdma `cWm[nImcnbmb s]mnbmkv ss]ens [Roman procurator of Judea, Pontius Pilot] Imembncpp. ( A.D. 26-36 ) Cu ImeLnse ap ]e kw`hfpw tdma `cWhpambn _sncnpp. [The First Christians:Spread of Roman Empire By Holland Lee Hendrx]

Cenbnse Hcp ASnm\ cmjv{Sob LSIambn [Political unit in Italy] XpSnb sNdnb {]m\w Ime{ItaW Fm saUntd\nb \ZoXSfntepw [Mediterranean basin] ]Sp ]env Hcp alm km{mPyambn hfcpIbmbncpp. ]t, AXv hfscb[nIw kabsaSpp. A[n\nthineqsSbpw ASnaeneqsSbpw, Fm NneXv, WntSpIbneqsSbpw [invasion, through conquest, but also through invitation] \nch[n Ne\mIXIfn \nv AXv hfp hp. Nne Ing saUntd\nb [Eastern Mediterranean] bh\ \Kcfn tdma hyhkmbnI bYm kmaqly bqWnpI cq]oIcnp. AXn\ptijw irwKeIfmbn [Networks] amdnb Ccw bqWnpIsf cm{ob inI cmjv{Sob DtitmsS ]npSp. Cen [Italy] apX kmnIhpw ssk\nIhpamb {]h\fn \nv km{amPyw hS B{^n [North Africa] , ]Snmdv Av ss{Kv {_n [Great Britain] hsc, Ing kndnb [Eastern Syria] hsc Ingtmv, {Kokv apgph [All of Greece] , Xpn apgph [All of Turkey] , kndnb ]ekvXo [Syral Palestinian] {]tZiwhsc AXp ]enp. ]qamb saUntd\nb [Mediterranean basin] XSw ^e]pnbp tdma Bbncpp. [The First Christians:The Roman Empire And Judea By Michael White] tdma `cWm[n] saUntd\nb {]tZi ]nSnSptmgmWv sblqZybqw [Judea] IogSnbXv. Cu {]{Inbbn, Ah NneXv {]hniyIfmbpw [Provinces] NneXv bv cmPyfmbpw [Client kingdoms] {]Jym]np. Cu bv cmPyfn Hmbncpp sblqZy. kzbw kzX{tam AkzX{tam Bbncp cmPmmcmbncpp AXns `cWIm. \apv Adnbmhp alm\mb sltcmZmhv [Herod the Great] Bbncpp As blpZybpsS cmPmhv.

blqZmcpsS Peamb blqZymbnse km[mcWmcmb P\ġv tdmw {]_eamb B[n]Xyap Hcp apJy cm{ob LSIambncpp. ssZ\wZn\ hyhlmcfn tdmammsc Ah Incpnsnepw ]pdIn tdmamm AhcpsS A[nImcw ASnt]npIbmbncpp. bv cmPhwins Imcyn, PyqUnbbn, sltcmZmhns `cWhpw sltcmZmhns ssk\yhpw Hcp cm{obm]\ambn \ne\nncpp. Fm, tdmamm knwlmk\n\p ]nn A[nImcnepsv Fmhpw Adnbmambncpp blqZcm{fn Amefn kw`hn ]e {]iv\fpsSbpw, kmnI {]XnknbpsSbpw, DdhnShpw {tkmXpw tdmw BsW Imcyhpw Fmhpw Adnbmambncpp. AXpsImv, ssZ\wZn\ P\PohnXn\p tat\mw hlnp Hcp {][m\ inbpsXmbncpp As \nehnencp cm{ob bmYmyw.

B.C. 37 apX B.C. 4 hsc `cnncp alm\mb sltcmZmhv cm{ob ImgvNmSn ZoLhpw `wKnbpap Hcp kaamb `cWw ImgvNshp. ZmhoZnsbpw itemtamsbpw cmPhwins XpS`cWsav hymJym\nsncp cmP]ccbnse alm\mb sltcmZmhns acWtijw cmPyw Atlns aqp aġmbn ]pshp. Hcp ]p{X\mb sltcmZmhv Anmkv [Herod Antipas] , KeoebpsS hS {]tZifpw tPmm \ZnbpsS Ingphifpw ssISn. asmcp ]p{X ^nenv Keoenbm ISens Ingp`mKp taJebnse {]tZi ssISn. Ctm B {]tZiw tKmem IppIfmbn [Golan Heights] IWmsSpp. aqmas ]p{X Avsebkv [Archelaeus] hmkvXhn Ghpw {][m\s \Kc Ds hensbmcp `mKsaSpp. Ctm \ blqZysbp hnfnp Cu {]tZiw bYmn aqv k_v Unhnj\pIfn Ghpw {][m\sXmbncpp.

{Kov-tdma ]mespdnv hkvXp\njvThpw kXykhpamb Adnhv e`npXn\v GItZiw B.C. 300 apX A.D. 300 hscbp, AXmbXv, AeIvkmdn \nv tImkvss [Alexander to Constantine] hscbp hnimeamb kabw IWnseSptXpv. apImeLfn sl\nI cmjv{Sob kzm[o\w ap]nbnembncpp Fn ]nmev tdmamkm{amPyns kzm[o\w cm{ob cwKv bh\ ImeLsmfpw IqSpX Imew ap]nbnembncpp. sl\nI ImeLn\pap]v lo{_p Ncn{Xhpw sl\nI Ncn{Xhpw Xnep _w t]jy km{amPym Aecnncnpp. t]jy N{Ihnam, apKmanIfn \nv hyXykvXambn, hynKX kwkvImcs \ne\nm LSI A[o\{]tZisf [Constituent territories] A\phZnp. ]mkncmPmhmb sskdkv [Cyrus, King of Persia] _m_ntemWn _nIfmnbncp blqZmcmb XShpImsc, sbcqiteanse AhcpsS Bebw ]WnbpXn\v kzmX{yw {]Jym]nv hnbp. [Ezra 1:1-4; 2 Chronicles 36:33-23] t]jym XfpsS {]hiyIsf GsSppsav tdmamm `bsncpp. [History of Persian Empire : Anabasis, by Xenophon]

t]jy N{Ihnbmb Zmcnbqkv [Darius, the Persian Emperor] acntm ]Icw cmPmhmbn D]hnjvTamnb Alvimhv [Artaxerxes] , X\nsXnsc KqVmtemN\ \Snsbv Btcm]nv Xs ktlmZc sskdkns\ [Cyrus] ImcmKrln Bnbncpp. Alvimhns\ m\{`jvS\mphm sskdkv {Kop ssk\ysf IqensSpp. As\ IqensSp {KopIm t]jy an Pohnptm, Ah t\cs `bncp t]jymcpsS _elo\XI a\nemm XpSn. As\ t]jymsXnscbp GYkpImcpsSbpw {KopImcpsSbpw BXynIamb hnPbw Zqchym]Iamb {]XymLmX Dmphm ImcWambn. XfpsS hnPbn\p thn {KopIm ssZhtmSp \n {]ISnnpXn \nv Ah IqSpX aX]cambnop. HSphn GYkv [Athens] hfsc khpw ihpambnop. kv]m [Sparta] Hcp ]mf tI{ambn amdn. Hcp henb _pn{]hmlw {Kov \Kcfntev HgpIm XpSn. ]e _pnPohnIfpw a\pjykvt\lnIfpw GYkntebvv IpSntbdm XpSn. BXynIambn {Kov kwkvImcw temIsamSpw {]Ncnm XpSn.

{Kokn hnZym`ymk]chpw XzNnm]chpw Bb hnhw \SXv GYknse tkm^nkvpIfpsS [Sophists] DZbn\v hgnsbmcpn. [Microsoft Encarta 2004] tkm^nkvpI {Kov s]mXp PohnXn {]kwKIebpsS [Art of Speech] Adnhv hym]nnphm XpSn. tkm^nkvpI Hcp kvIqfns\m hnimeamb Xzimkv{X hoW ]nSp hynIfmbncpp. tkm^nkvpI hnhn[ ap XzNnIcpsS Bib {]Ncnnp. Fm Cu ]gInb XXzNnIsf Bkv]Zamnb [mcWIfpsS ASnm\n, kXyhpw kmnIXbpw hnhn[ a\pI Xnse A`n{]mb hyXymkfpw hynKX hnizmkfpamsWv Ahcn A[nIhpw A`n{]mbsSpIbpw A{]Imcw D]kwlcnpIbpw sNbvXp. PohnX hnPbn\mbn, {]tXyInv s]mXpPohnXw {]tbmP\sSppXn\v {]`mjW IebpsS {]m[m\yw AhcpsS ]TnneneqsS Dundbphm XpSn. [Background of early Christianity By Everett Ferguson] tkm^nkvpI {][m\ambpw AepXncnbphcpw tImkvtams]mfn [Cosmopolitan] coXnI Ahew_nphcpw Bbncpp. Ah XfpsS sshZKvyw sXfnbnm\pw _nkn\kv t\Sm\pw s]mXp {]`mjW \Sn.

{]kwK]mThnepw bpnklPamb Nnbnepw Ignhv sXfnbnv hnPbnIfmbh AhcpsS NmcpXbvv kaqln AdnbsSm XpSn. hyamb sXfnhpIsXncmbn s]mXphmb Xen Fs\ Imcy hmZnmsav Ah XfpsS hnZymnIsf ]Tnnp. AXpsImv AhcpsS kzw KpWġpw kzm Xmcyġpw A\pkcWambn hkvXpXIġv ]pXnb hymJym\ \Iphm\pw kmnIamb hmZKXnI Dbnphm\pw Ahv km[np. tkm^nkvpI bpnklPamb tNmZy Dbnm XpSnbtm, ssZhfpsS AkvXnXzspdnp NnI DWphcp {]hWX Dmbncpp. a\pjyXzns Hcp ]pXnb hoWw B.C. Amw \qmnse {Kov NnIcneqsSbmWv {]XysXv. -a\pjys\ a\pjys\ \nebn ImWphm Ah t_m[hmmcmbn. CXv {Kov kwkvImcns khntijamb kz`mhambncpp. Ccw BZifpsS sshcpyw Dbnmphm\p {]hWX kv]mm, GYkpIm Xnep sshcmKyw DSseSppXp hsc XpSp. CXv B`ycbpv hgnsXfnp.

alm\mb AeIvkm [Alexander The Great] , cm{fpsS Ncn{Xn Xs {]mcw` AwKoImcn\v ap{Z ]XnnXv At\Iw ImcWsImv, {InkvXob hnZym`ymkns ]nmep hnIk\n\v hgnsbmcpn. ]noSv Atlw {Kov kwkvImcs Ingn\p ssIamw sNbvXp. Ime{ItaW Adnbsncp temInse Fm cmPyfnepw Bibhn\nabns s]mXphmb Hcp `mjbmbn {Kov `mj ]cnWanp. ]nmev {InkvXpaXw {]Ncnnm Hcp hml\ambn [Vehicle] CXv D]tbmKnpIbpw hwiob hnthN\s A]e]npIbpw aXkzmX{ys {]Jym]npIbpw sNbvXp. sbcpiteantev h AeIvkm blqZaXhpambn bh\hmZns IqSnmgvNsb kqNnnp. bdnsbpw KmkbptSbpw [Tyre and Gaza] D]tcm[n\ptijw tbdpiteanse blqZ AeIvkmdns\ A`nhmZ\w sNbvXpshv Ncn{XImc\mb tPmk^vkv ^vfhhnbkv [Josepus Flavious] kmnpp. [Hebrew Archeology by Josepus Flavious] B.C. 285- ]gb\nbaw {Kontev `mjmcw sNbysp. Cu {Kov hnh\amWv Ingpw ]Snmdpw D]tbmKnncp Hu]NmcnI ]mTw. AeIvkmdpsSbpw Atlns ]nKmanIfpsSbpw {knbmb AeIvkm{nb ]Ww [City of Alexandria] {InkvXpaXns Xnfp shfnn Hcp {][m\ ]phlnp. AeIvkmdns `cWw Hcp henb _unI amn\pw hynXzns h\hn\pw hgn sXfnp. AXphsc CXc temIn \npw hnp \nncp GXkv Ctm temIs ]Tnnp Aym]I\mbn XpSn. {KopIm HuXyap Hcp {]tXyI t{iWnbpw Hcp _unI hn`mKhpambn IWmsSphm XpSn. {Kov kwkvImcns hnimeamb {]Nmcw krn Cu kmwkvImcnIhn`mKw ]utemkns\ 'blqZmscbpw {KopImscbpw' tdmammsgpXnb teJ\n, blqZ, {Kov, _m_dnI F t]cn kanphm ImcWambn. [Rom 1:16, 14; Gal 3:28; Col 3:11]

GItZiw B.C. 200 apX CuPn]vv, ^ekvXo, kndnb, Gjy FnhnSfn {Kov kzm[o\ ]Xps ]nhenbm XpSnbtXmsS AhcpsS Xtiob kwkvImc kzbw ]p\c[nhknm XpSn. [Alexander And Christianity By H.E. Nicholas Martis] tSmfankv XfpsS Duw AeIvkm{nbbn tI{oIcntm, skens^nkns tI{w AtymIym Bbncpp. tSmfankv [Ptolemies] AeIvkm{nbbn [Alexandria] Hcp ayqknbhpw sFXnlmknI {Kimebpw m]np. tSmfan Bdmas ImeLn {Kimebnse {KtiJcw 700,000 ]pkvXIfm karambn XpSp. tSmfan AeIvkm{nbsb {Kov temIns _unIhpw Bobhpamb tI{amn amn, CXv ]noSv Ncn{Xn AhcpsS kw`mh\bmbn. AeIvkm{nbbnse blqZcpw -{ssIkvXhcpamb _pnPohnIfpsS kzm[o\w aXNcn{Xs KWyambn kzm[o\np. ]ekvXo, ssk{]kv, Nne GPnb Zzo]pI, Gjymssa\dnse Nne `mKfpw [Palestine, Cyprus, Some Aegean islands, and parts of Asia Minor] tSmfanamcpsS \nb{Wnembncpp. ]temkpw av ]e ]pXnb\nba FgppImcpw XfpsS DcWnIfn kqNnnXp, ln{_p `mjbn \nv {Kov `mjbntev AeIvkm{nbbn ]cn`mjsSpnb sk]vphPnv [Septuagint] F thZ]pkvXIn \npamWv. {Kov `mjbn ]gb\nbans Cu {Kov ]Xnv Hcp AtZiob kzm[o\w sNepnbncpp. AXv lo{_p {ssIkvXh hnImkns apJyamb ^e Bbncpp. B[p\nI ]nXmv ssIamdnb BZys tcJIfmWv AeIvkm{nb tImsUIvkv [Alexandrian Codex]. koeqknZv {]tZiw kndnb, Gjy FnhnSfnse ]pcmX\amb t{X-kwm\fpsS [Ancient temple-states of Syria and Asia] `mKambncpp. BZna {ssIkvXh Ncn{Xn skeyqknUv ^utj\pIfn [Seleucid foundations] Ghpw {][m\ambXv AsymIybmbncpp [Antioch].

CHRISTIAN EDUCATION ARTICLES MALAYALAM

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