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CHRISTIAN EDUCATION - MALAYALAM


HISTORY AND GROWTH OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN EARLY CENTURIES-SERIES 6
BZy \qmpIfnse {InkvXob hnZym`ymkns Ncn{Xhpw hfbpw 6

By Dr. Rajan Mathew B.E., M.E., Ph.D.

CHRISTIAN WRITERS AND THEIR WRITINGS IN APOSTOLIC AGE
AtmkvtXmenI Imes FgppImcpw FgppIfpw

hnip {InkvXy aXns ASnd A\p{KloXamb cIs Ncn{Xn m]nncnpp. Cu hnip kXyn Fmhcpw tbmPnp {]tNmZnXcmb \nch[n FgppIm CXv tcJsSppIbpw AhtijnnpIbpw sNbvXp. tbip, {InkvXp BWv, Poh\p ssZhns ]p{X\mWv FXns sXfnhmWv Cu {]tNmZnX FgppI. Cu ]mdbn {InkvXob k` ]WnXncnpp. hnhn[ BZyIme {InkvXob FgppIm kphntijfpw teJ\fpw ap ]pkvXIfpw FgpXn. Ahbn NneXv ]pXnb\nbans Imt\m Bbn XncsSpv ss__n cq]nemn. Imhmb tbip{InkvXphntXmb, av FgppImcm BteJ\w sNs hmsamgnbmsX, Hcp Fgppw \nehnen. tbiphns kzw injymcpw, Ahsc ImWpIbpw Ahcn \nv ]TnpIbpw sNbvXXmbn ]ccmKXambn hnizknp {]apJ FgppImcpambncpp AtmkvtXmenI ]nXmm. injymcpambn t\cnp _anmsX AtmkvtXmenI ]npSbpsS AhImiw e`n FgppImcmWv BZyIme k`m ]nXmm. {InkvXpaXs hnainqhsXnsc hmZn k`m kvt\lnXcmbncpp AtmfPnkvpI.

]pXnb\nbaw {InkvXob ss__nfnse cp `mKfn cmatXpw, sNdpXpw, {InkvXob k`bpsS Imt\m\nIhpw B[nImcnIhpamb ASnm\amWv. ]gb\nbanse hmKvZm\fpsS ]qoIcWamWv ]pXnb\nbaw. CXnse 27 ]pkvXIfn BZys \msew Imhmb tbip{InkvXphns PohnXhpw ]TnnepIfpw hnhcnp kphntij AYhm GhtKentbm BWv. {InkvXob hnizmkw {]NcnnpXn {InkvXphns A\pbmbnIfpsS {]h\s hnhcnp, k`bpsS BZyIme Ncn{XamWv AtmkvtXme{]hnI. {]mtZinI BZyIme hnizmknItfmSp D]tZiw, {]t_m[\w, DZvt_mZ\w Fnh DsSp hnizmkns Ahpw hym]vXnbpw ]Tnnp teJ\fmWv ]noSpXv. Ahbn 14 Fw hnip ]utemkns teJ\fmWv. kmh{Xob [Catholic Epistles] teJ\ FdnbsSp Ggp teJ\ \mev FgppImcptSXmWv. Ahkm\s shfn]mSv ]pkvXIw `mhnbn hcm\ncnp kw`hfpw ssZhoIeyns ]cyhkm\hpw {]hNnpp.

BoIhpw [mnIhpamb hfbn XncphN\ġv AXpeyamb m\apv. "Fm Xncpshgppw ssZhizmkobamIbm ssZhnsd a\pjy kIe k{]hrnpw hI {]m]np XnIh BtIXnp D]tZin\pw imk\n\pw KpWoIcWnpw \oXnbnse A`ymkn\pw {]tbmP\apXp BIpp.' (2 XosamsYsbmkv 3:16,17) \psS Imhmb tbip{InkvXphns a\pjymhXmcw, IpcnipacWw, ]p\cpm\w Fnhsb ]cmainp sslnIhpw AtmkvtXmenIhpw Bb ]cnipm \nthinXamb kmyhpw ssZhimkv{X {]t_m[\fpamWv ]pXnb\nbanepXv. Pohs hN\ns a\pjymhXmcs kz IpIsImv Ipw, kzw sNhnIsImv tIpw, kzw ssIsImv kv]inpw sImp AtmkvtXmenI kmyamWv {InkvXob hnizmkns \nZm\hpw ASnm\hpw. k`m ]nXmm XncphN\s AhcpsS Bob PohnXns A[mcbmbn A\p`hnv AdnhcmWv.

\mev kphntijImcpw AhcpsS kphntijfpw:
]pXnb\nbanse BZys \mev ]pkvXIfmb kphntij tbip{InkvXphns PohnXhpw ]TnnepIfpw hcp ImWnpp. ]gb\nbanse {]hN\ {InkvXp Fs\ \ndthn Fv NqnmWnphm\pw kphntij hfscb[nIw D]Icnpp. Zcn{Zpthn tbip Xs kphmm ip{iqjm [Good News] Bcw`npXpw hyXykvX ]mefn \np BfpIsf kam[m\tmsS Hcpanv PohnpXv Fs\sbv ]TnnpXpw kphntijfn IqSnbmWv.

{InkvXob ]mccyn \mev kphntijIm hnipcmb ambn, atmkv, eqtmkv, tbmlm FnhcmWv. ]pXnb\nbanse \mev kphntij hnhcW krnXns cNbnXm Cu XespI hlnpp: hnip ambnbpsS kphntijw, hnip atmkns kphntijw, hnip eqtmkns kphntijw, hnip tbmlms kphntijw. BZys aqp kphntijsf kam\kphntij [Synoptic Gospels] FdnbsSpp. ImcWw Ahbn Htc kw`h hnhcW Htc {Ian DsSpp. cNbnXm Imhmb tbip {InkvXphns cp injym ambnbpw tbmlm\pw ap cpt] AtmkvtXmenI ]nXmcmb atmkpw eqtmkpw.

hnip ambnbpw ambnbpsS kphntijhpw:
hnip ambn Imhmb tbip{InkvXphns ]{v AtmkvXemcn Hcmfmbncpp. kphntij A\pkcnv tehn Fp adpt]cp ambn Keoemc\pw A^mbnbpsS aI\pamb Hcp blqZ\mbncpp. Npw ]ncnhmbncpp sXmgn. tdma A[n\nthi tk\bpambn klIcnpXmbn ImWsXn\m kl PqXm Atls ]pnncpp. XncsSpn\ptijw ambn tbiphns\ Hcp hncpn\mbn hontep Wnp. CXp Itm \nIpXn]ncnhpImcpw ]m]nIfpsamv `Ww IgnXn\v imkv{Xnamcpw ]coimcpw tbiphns\ hnainp. "Rm hXv \oXnammscb ]m]nIsf am\kmcntemWv hnfnXv' Fv Dcw ]dhm CXv tbiphns\ t{]cnnp.

hnip ambn kphntijI Xs kphntijw Bcw`npXv {InkvXphns hwimhen, P\\w, ]qnI Fo hnhcWfneqsSbmWv. tbip hmkvXhn hmKvZm\w sNs ainlm BsWpw I\yIbn\npw P\n ZmhoZns ]p{X\pw BsWpw sXfnbnv aqp ]Xn\membn \mncv XeapdIfn tbiphns hwimhen ambn tcJsSpnbncnpp. ]ekvXo\nse PqX {InkvXym\nIġmWv Cu kphntijw FgpXnbsXv FgppImc D]tbmKn NnmKXnbpw BhnjvImc cq]fpw kqNnnpp. \{kmb\mb tbip hmKvZ ainlm BsWpw ]pcmX\ {]hN\fn Ah \ndthspshpw sXfnbnpI FXmWv Atlns henb eyw. {InkvXphns\ {]hNnpIbpw apIqn ImWnpIbpw sNp ]gb \nba `mKfntep ]cmaifpw hmmep Ahew_ sImpw kphntijw \ndncnpp. "\ymb{]amWn tamibpw {]hmNImcpw FgpXnb tbip' Ah\mWv' Fp sXfnbnpI FXmWv Cu ]pkvXIns apgph eyhpw. Cu kphntijns {][m\ khntijX "Rm \innm hX, \ndthpXn\mWv' F ap{ZmhmIyn {]ISnnmw.

hnip ambn {InkvXptbiphns Av {][m\ {]kwK tcJsSpnbncnpp: ]X {]`mjWw (57); AtmkvtXmemp anj\dn {]`mjWw (10); cmPyns D]aI (13); BZyIme ss{IkvXh kaqlnse PohnXspdnp {]`mjWw (18); AyImes bpKmimkv{X {]`mjWw (2425)

Imhmb tbip{InkvXphns kzmtcmlWn\ptijw AtmkvtXme\mb hnip _temambn CUybntev anjy\dn ]cyS\w \Snsbpw AhnsS ambnbpsS kphntijns Hcp ]Iv Ahtijnnpshpw BZnak` Ncn{XImc\mb ssIkcnbmbnse bqtk_ntbmkv ]nXmhv kmnpp. ]pcmX\ \Kcamb Ieym FdnbsSp sIm Xocs t_mws_ {]tZiw hnip _temambnbpsS anj\dn {]h\ taJe Bbncppshv Fr. A.C. Perumalil SJ and Moraes FnhcpsS ]T\ hyampp.

hnip atmkpw atmkns kphntijhpw:
hnip atmkv ]t{Xmkns A\pbmbnbpw AtmktXmenI ]nXmhpw Bb Hcp blqZ Bbncpp. hnip ]t{Xmkv Atls Xs t{]jnX bm{Xbn klmbnbpw hymJymXmhpw Bbn XncsSpp. tPm Fp adpt]cp atmkv __mkns ktlmZcn ]p{X\pw kphntijw {]kwKnm tbip Ab Fgp]Xv injymcn [St. Luke 10:1] HcmfmsWpw IcpXsSpp. atmkns A tbiphns kv{Xo A\pbmbnIfn Hcmfmb adnb Bbncppshpw BZyIme {InkvXob hnizmknI AhcpsS hon IqSnhncpp Fpw AtmkvtXme {]hnI shfnhmpp. (12:12) Cu hoSns Npp]mSn sKvskta\ ]qtmhpw Dsncpp. sbcpitew Iuknen\ptijw AtymIybntep aSptm atmkv __mkntbpw iuentbpw Iqmfn Bbncpp. ssk{]kntep BZys anj\dn bm{Xbnepw atmkv ]utemknt\mSpw __mknt\mSpw Hapmbncpp. ssk{]knepw sbcqiteanepw Bbncnptm tPm atmkns\ tPm F F{_mb \manepw ]noSp IpIfn atmkv F kkm[mcWamb tdma \manepamWv hnip ]utemkv hnfnp ImWpXv. hnip atmkn\v tbip{InkvXphns\ hyn]cambn Adnbmambncpp. hmkvXhn, tbiphns\ Adkvp sNbvXtm ]qtmn \nv \\mbn HmSntmb bphmhns hnhcWw [St. Mark 14:51-52] kphntijIs BIYm ]cmaiambn IcpXsSpp.. ImcWw Cu hnhcWw atmkns kphntijn am{XamWv ImWpXv. BZyw atmkv Xs {]Ya t{]jnX bm{Xbn aSntmbXpsImv ]utemkn\v A\n\mbncpp Fnepw ]noSv henb Zbbpmbncpp. Xs ip{iqjbn hfsc {]tbmP\{]Z\mbncppshpw k`I Ahs\ kzoIcnWsapw kmysSpn IpI Abp.

BZyIme {InkvXpaXns FnkvtIm `qhn`mKfn [Episcopal See] Hmb AeIvkm{nbmbnse k` m]nXv hnip atmkmsWv ]mccyw hnizknpp. AeIvkm{nbmbnse BZys _njmbn Atlw Ahtcm[nsp. B{^nbnse {InkvXpaXns m]I F \nebn Atlw _lpam\nsSpp. ss__n ]cmaifn Ahkm\ Amgw \S hontev Hcp IpSw shw sImpt]mb BfmsWpw (hn. atmkv 14:13) atmkns\ Xncndnbpp. tbiphns acWtijw atmkvv injymsc Xs hon BXntYbXzw hlnpshpw Dbsgpt {InkvXp atmkns hon Fnsbpw (hn. tbmlm 20) ]cnipmmhv s]ntmkvXn \mfn injymcpsSta CdnbXv CtX hon BsWpw, hncnsmcpnb hmfnI atmkns AbptSXmsWpw tIm]vnv ]mccyapv.

]pXnb \nbanse kphntijfn Ghpw {lkzamWv atmkns kphntijw. hnip ]t{Xmkn\v atmknt\mSv Gsd Cambncpp; atmkns\ Xs ]p{X Fp hnfnp. [1 Peter 5:13] ]e ]nXmmcpw ]t{Xmkns\ atmkns kphntijns DdhnSambn IcpXpp, ImcWw atmkv ]t{Xmkns hymJymXmhv Bbncpp. hnip atmkns kwn]vXhpw hnhc_lpehpamb kphntijw {][m\ambpw hnPmXobpthnbpw, {]tXyInv tdmap thnbpw BWv DtinsnpXv. tbiphns ]cky ip{ipjIsfpdnp atmkns hnhcWns ]IpXntbmfw ApXsf hnhcnpp. `qXsf Xpcnsmv, tcmKnIsf kpJsSppXneqsS, sImSpmpIsf imampXneqsS tbip ApX {]hnpp.

hnip eqtmkpw eqtmkns kphntijhpw:
AtymIybn P\n eqtmkv BZyImefn Xs {InkvXpaXntev ]cnh\w sNshcn Hcmfmbncpp. mkn {Kon {]mhoWyw t\Snb Hcp kmlnXy {]Xn` Bbncpp eqtmkv. kphntijw cNntijw AtmkvtXmemcpsS {]hnIfpsS XpSbpw Atlw FgpXn. Cu cp IrXnIfpw tNv GItZiw 60 hjs tbiphntbpw BZyIme {InkvXy k`bptSbpw PohnXhpw ]Tnnepw Dsmpp. ]pXnb\nba {Kw FgpXnb GI hnPmXob eqtmkv BsWpXv Atlns khntijXbmWv. [Collosians 4:10-14] ]utemkns D kplrmbncp eqtmkv Hcp sshZy\mbncpp. AtmkvtXme{]hnIfnse hnhcWa\pkcnv hnip ]utemkns aqp anj\dn bm{XIfn Atlw ]mfn Bbncpp. amkntUmWnse t{]jIhqnptijw eqtmkv ]utemkns kXklNmcn Bbncpp.

C{kmtben\pw Fm hnPmXobpw Hcpt]mse c hmKvZm\w sNp tbip{InkvXphn Fm a\pjypw thnbp Hcp cIs ]ccmKX hmKvZm\w \ndthsSpp FXmWv eqtmkns kphntijnse ImXemb kmcmwiw. ssZhns ki\ntbpw kmh{XnI cmamntbpw {]tabw BZyw {]ISnnXv skJcymhneqsSbpw, inatbm inip tbiphns\ tZhmebn Itm, "hnPmbnXv shfnsSpen\pw bn{kmtbens alXzn\pap Hcp shfnw' F {]m\m {]hN\neqsSbpw Bbncpp. [St. Luke 42:6. Isaiah 42:6, 49:6] eqtmkns kphntihpw AtmktXme{]hnIfpw Xn Hcp hnhcWmI sFIyapv, ImcWw cnepw, tbip{InkvXphntbpw Ahs injymcptSbpw ZuXyw "ssZhns Dtiyw' \SmpI FXmWv.

eqtmkns kphntijnse BZys cv Aymb iniphmb tbiphns\pdnpXmWv. ]cnip I\yIadnbmnt\mSp hnizmknepw {]m\bnepw ]eXpw eptmkns inip hnhcWsf ASnm\amnbnphbmWv. hmkvXhn, "\ \nd adnbta' F amXmhnt\mSp {]m\ Cu kphntijn \npw DcpncnXmWv. ]pXnb\nban tbiphns _meyIme ]cmaihpw, _me\mb tbiphns tbcpiteantep bm{Xbpw, iniphmbn kwkmcnpXpw, eqtmkns kphntijn am{XamWv. tbiphns hwimhen hnip ambn A{_mlman \nv XpSptm hnip eqtmkv AXp XpSpXv kIe am\hcminbptSbpw BZy]nXmhmb BZman \nmWv: BZmans\ hntijnnpXv ssZhns aI FmWv.

hnip tbmlm\pw tbmlms kphntijhpw:
tbmlm tbiphns Acpainjy\pw, injymcn {]mbw Ipd Bfpw Bbncpp. Imhns {IqipacW kabv AtmkvtXmemcn tbmlm am{Xw Imhdnbnse Ipcnins Nphn ]cnip amXmhns\mSpw ap kv{XoItfmSpw Hw \nncpp. tbip {Ipin InSv Xs amXmhns kwcW GnXv Cu injys\ Bbncpp. tbiphns Bb\pkcnv tbiphns Abmb I\yIadnbans\ tbmlm tbiphns Ahkm\ ]mccyambn kzoIcnp. (hn. tbmlm 19:2527) tbmlm Xs cN\Ifn ssZhn\pw ]p{X\mb tbiphn\pw a\pjyhtmSp kvt\lw {]ISnnpp. tbiphns acWtijw tbcpitew k`bpsS XqWpIfn Hcmfmbncpp hnip tbmlm AtmkvtXme. bYm ]{v injymcn Hcmfmb Atlw ]q hmIyw hsc Pohnncp Htcsbmcp hynbmbncppshpw ckmnbmbn sImsSm AtmkvtXme Bbncppshpw hnizknsSpp. Fncpmepw, tdma A[nImcnIfm ]tmkv Zzo]ntev Atlw \mSpISsp Fv IcpXsSpp. AhnsS shv Atlw shfn]mSv ]pkvXIw FgpXn.

sk_ZnbpsSbpw tPml Fp adpt] hnfnncp ktemanbptSbpw aI\mbncpp Atlw. AtmkvtXme\mbncp hnip henb bmtm_v Atlns ktlmZc Bbncpp. hnip tbmlm AtmktXme BZyw tbmlm kv\m]Is injy\mbncpp. kv\m]I tbiphns\ "ssZhns IpmSv' Fv NqnmWnXv tIv tbiphns\ ]npScpIbpw IqsS Hcp Znhkw Xmaknbpw sNbvXXv tbmlm\pw A{tbmkpw Bbncppshv hnizknp t]mcpp. sk_Znbpw afpw Keoenb ISen ay_\w \SpIbmbncpp. Xs A\pKanm tbip ]t{Xmknt\bpw A{tbmknt\bpw, ]ns sk_Zn ]p{Xmcmb bmtm_nt\bpw tbmlmt\bpw hnfnp. Ah At\bpw hetbbpw hnv tbiphns\ ]npSp. tbip sk_Znasf hnfnncpXv CSna Fap "t_msWPkv' FmWv. hmkkuIcyw \nckn Hcp iacy\Kcn kzob An Cdn \innphm sk_Zna B{KlnsXs\sbv Hcp kphntij `mKv hnhcnpp. Fm tbip Ahsc imknp. (hn. eqtmkv 9:5156) Atlns ktlmZc\pw BZy AtmkvtXme ckmnbpw Bbncp hnip henb bmtm_ns ckmnXzn\ptijw Ac \qmntesd hnip tbmlm AtmkvtXme Pohnncpp. bmbotdmkns aIfpsS Dbsgptn\p ]t{XmskmgnsIbp GI ZrIvkmnbmbncpp tbmlm. ]t{Xmkpw bmtm_pw tbmlm\pw tbiphns adpcq] aebnse cq]mcsSen\p kmnIfmbncpp. Cu aqpt] av AtmkvtXmemsc At]nv sKXvka\bnse thZ\Iġv AcnsI \nv kmyw hlnp. tbiphns \man `qXsf ]pdmpXn \nv injy\m Hcphs\ "hnen' Fv tbiphns\ Adnbn injy\mbncpp tbmlm. "\apv FXncmh \apv A\pIqew' Fv Imhv AXn\v adp]Sn \In.

Ahkm\ Amgamb s]klm `Wns Hcpn\mbn tbip ]Wntev AbXv ]t{Xmknt\bpw tbmlmt\bpw am{Xambncpp. (hn. eqtmkv 22:8) "tbip kvt\ln injy' Ay Amgn tbiphns s\tmSv tNv AcnsI Ccpp. ]mccyw Cu injys\ hnip tbmlm Fv Xncndnbpp. (hn. tbmlm 13:2325) tbiphns\ Adkvp sNbvXtijw ]t{Xmkpw as injy\pw tbiphnt\msSw alm]ptcmlnXs sImmcntev A\pKanp. Cu "as injy' tbmlm BsWv A\pam\npp. tbiphns kzmtcmlWn\pw s]ntmkvXnbnse ]cnipm Bhmkn\pw tijw tbmlm\pw ]t{Xmkpw tNv k`bpsS m]\nepw am\ntinepw {][m\ ]p hlnp. ({]hnI 3) tbcpitew tZhmebnse itemtams a]n ]t{Xmkv apSs\ kuJyamnbtm tbmlm IqsSbpmbncpp. ]t{Xmkns\mw tbmlmt\bpw Imcm{Klnemn. ]pXpXmbn ]cnh\w sNbvX hnizmknIsf kinm ]t{Xmknt\msSmw Atlw iacybntep t]mbn. ({]hnI 8:14)

KemXy teJ\n hnip ]utemkv, ]t{Xmknt\bpw \oXnam\mb sNdnb bmtm_nt\bpw [James The Just] tbmlmt\bpw "k`bpsS XqWpI' Fp hntijnnpp. sPdpkteanse aninsslI kapZmbnse {]apJcmb Chv blqZm \nban\nv apamb Hcp kphntijns AtmkvtXmenI {]kwKw e`nXns AwKoImcsbmWv ]utemkv kqNnnpXv.

ssZhimkv{X]cambn AKm[amb hnip tbmlms kphntijw hN\w PUambnop F \nKqVXsb {]kvXmhnpp. \kdmb\mb tbiphns PohnXw, A`n\nthiw, acWw ]p\cpm\w FnhbpsS ]pXnb Nn{XoIcWw tbmlms kphntijw \Ipp. tbmlms kphntijw tbip{InkvXphns AhXmchpw ssZhXzhpw Dundbpp. temIkmlnXyns AXn Kw`ocamb Hcp IrXnbmWv tbmlms BapJw: "BZnbn hN\w Dmbncpp; hN\w ssZhtmSpIqsS Bbncpp; hN\w ssZhw Bbncpp.' BapJn tbmlm tbiphns\ temtKmIfmbn Xncndnbpp. Fm krnIġpw ssZhns FIoIcW XXzns Zmi\nI Bibw hN\ns \nhN\neqsS shfnhmpp.

tbmlms kphntijw tbiphns\ ainlm Fp hnfnpp. CXns Aw ssZhns A`njn FmWv. tbiphns hynXzw shfnsSpp "Rm' F hmn\v kphntijw {itbamWv. ]pdmSp ]pkvXIn ssZhw Xss shfnsSpXv "Rm\mIph Rm\mIpp' FmWv. Cu kphntijn tbip ]nXmhmb ssZhhpambn kzbw Xncndnbpp. tbiphns Fgp "Rm' {]tbmK CXn kqNnnpp. "Rm Pohs Aw', "Rm temIns shfnw', "Rm BSpIfpsS hmXn', "Rm \ CSb', "Rm ]p\cpm\hpw Poh\pw', "Rm hgnbpw kXyhpw Poh\pw', "Rm apncphn'. kphntijw ]nXmhntbpw ]p{Xtbpw ]cnip dqlmbptSbpw clkyhpw _ԧfpw shfnsSppp. Im\mhnse IeymWhncpns ApXw, emkdns\ Dbsgpt\nXv, injymcpsS ]mZw IgpI, {Iqin amXmhnt\mSpw tbmlmt\mSpw ]d hmpI apXembhsb ]cmainpXv Cu kphntijn am{XamWv.

AtmkvtXme{]hnI:
{InkvXob k` blpZ aXn \npw hyXykvXhpw AXns Ahinfn m]nXhpamWv. {InkvXphns\ kw_n hkvXpXI AtmkvtXmemv ]qambpw _sSm\pw kmysSpm\pw hfsc Bhiyambncpp. hnip eqtmkns "AtmkvtXmemcpsS {]hnI' F Ncn{X ]pkvXIw \mev kphntijġptijw ]hn{X Imt\ms `mKambn Fmbvtmgpw kzoIcnncpp. {InkvXphns ]p\cpm\ns sXfnhpI tcJsSpnb tijw kphntij ]qoIcnsSpp. X Xs kmnIfmbncnWsav {InkvXp injymtcmSv ]dncpp. A{]Imcap AhcpsS \ntbmKns \nlWn\v, {]hnIfpsS ]pkvIw AtmkvtXmempthn kmyw hlnpp.

]pXnb\nbanse aqmas kphntijI\mb hnip eqtmkns cmas ]pkvXIamWv AtmkvtXme{]hnI. ]gb\nban C{kmtben\v hmKvZm\w sNbvXXpw Imhmb tbip{InkvXp t\Sn XXpamb c Ctm ]cnipmmhns ]cn]me\nepw am\ntinepw Fs\bmWv hnPmXnbp IqSn hym]nnsXv hnhcnp Ncn{XamWv AtmkvtXme{]hnI. Ncn{X]camb Xs ]ckyip{iqjbn XncsSpsXpw ]p\cpm\n\ptijw Xm ]Tnn Fmn\pw kmnIfmbn Znhyambn \ntbmKnIsXpamb ]{v AtmkvtXmenI {]Xn\n[nIfneqsS BWv CXv kmyambXv. ]cntZ\bpsS AtmkvtXme\mb hnip ]t{Xmkntbpw hnPmXnbcpsS AtmkvtXme\mb hnip ]utemkntbpw t{]jIthe Ncn{XamWv {][m\ambpw {]hnIfpsS ]pkvXIn hnhcnpXv. {InkvXy kaplns BZyIme hmmhv F \nebn ]t{Xmkv kaqlns hfbvv DchmZn Bbncpp. ]noSv ]utemkv AtymIybnse kapln tNp. Gjyssa\dntep kphntijw {]Ncnnm Atltbpw __mknt\bpw NpaXesSpn.

hnip eqtmkv Xs cv ]pkvXIfpw Bcw`npXv Xs kplrmb {ioam Xntbm^ntemkns\ kwt_m[\ sNbvXpsImmWv. tbiphns ]p\cpm\w apX ]utemkns BZys tdma XShphsc k`bpsS ]ptcmKXnsbpdnv eqtmkv hnimeamb Hcp Nn{Xw hcpImpp. ]pkvXIw Ahkm\npXv ]utemkns tdmanse Imcm{Kl hmktmsS BWv. Cu IY ]dbptm, blqZ aXn \npw {InkvXpaXns Dhw apX temIsamSpap ]ZhnbptSbpw AIjWnsbpw aXw F \nebntep bm{X eqtmkv hnhcnpp. BZyw blqZ, ]ns hnPmXob iacy, Aw Aw \m\m hnPmXnb HSphn Xzn hnPmXnb, Cs\ av kwkvImcfntebpw cmPyfntebpw BfpIsf t{]cnn kmlNcysf m]np Imncpp. [Acts 8:4-25; 8:26-30; 10:1-48; 11:20-21]

k`bpsS Cu hnIk\n ssZhns {]h\w a\pjy lrZbsf XpdpXmbn hnip eqtmkv a\knempp. k`bpsS Ncn{XtmSp Atlns kao]\w ssZhimkv{X Xmcyfm {]tNmZnXamWv. AtmkvtXmenI k`bpsX Ncn{Xw Bmhn\m \bnsSp Hcp kaqlns IYbmWv; ssZhhN\w ]cnipmmhn\m \bnsSpXmWv. [Acts 1:8] ]t{Xmkntbpw ]utemkntbpw bm{XI, AXmbXv ssZhhN\ns bm{XI, tbiphns hn[n \Kcamb tbcpitew apX As temIns Xem\amb tdmw hsc hym]np.

hnip eqtmkv Imhmb tbip{InkvXphns Abbvs Fgp]Xv injymcn HcmfmsWv IcpXsSpp. Atlw hnip ]utemkns tkh\fnepw ImSpIfnepw IqpImc\mbncpp tdmantep A]IS bm{Xbn Atlw ]utemknt\msSmw Dmbncpp. 2 XotamYtbmkv 4:11, 16:10, 20:6. Hcp XShpImc\mbn AhntSp sImphcptm Pbnen \npw sImtekypw ^ntemtam\pw Xs teJ\ FgpXptm eqtmkv ]utemknt\msSmw Dmbncpp.

AtmkvtXme\mb hnip ]utemkv:
Xtkmknse iu F blqZ \maap AtmkvXe\mb hnip ]utemkv AtmkvtXmenI bpKnse Ghpw {][m\s hynIfn Hcmfmbncpp. Hmw \qmnse temIs {InkvXphns kphntijw ]Tnn hmnbpw FgppImc\pambncpp hnip ]utemkv. tbip{InkvXp Xs CltemI hym]mcImev XncsSp ]ncphcn Hcph Asnepw {InkvXphns Dbn\ptijw Zi\m hnfnptNs Hcp ]q AtmkvXe\mbncpp hnip ]utemkv. A. D. AXpIfpsS ]IpXnhsc Gjyss\dnepw bqtdmnepw Atlw At\Iw {InkvXob k`I m]np. blqZ\pw tdma ]uc\pw F ]ZhnI {]tbmP\sSpn blqZmcpsS CSbnepw tdmammcpsS CSbnepw Atlw kphntijthe \Sn.

saUntd\nb Xocs Ghpw henb hym]mctI{fnsemmb Xtkmkv \Kcnse `nbp Hcp Ipeo\ PqXIpSpw_n \npap Bfmbncpp hnip ]utemkv. B. C. 323 Acn alm\mb AeIvkm N{IhnbpsS Imev Gjymssa\dnse Ghpw kzm[o\ap \Kcambncpp Xtkmkv. sNdpn Xs, Ncn{Xnse Ghpw {itbcmb dnIfn Hcmfmb Kamentbens kvIqfn\npw hnZym`ymkw t\SpXn\mbn Atls Pdpiteantev Abp. F{_mb `mjbpw sImbv\ {Kopw kpKaambn ssIImcyw sNpXn\p ]mnXyw Atln\pmbncpp. sXmgn]cambn Atlw Hcp IqSmc\nmXmhmbncpp.

aX]cnh\n\p apv tbiphns ]nKmanIsf sbcpitew {]tZiv ]oVnnm iu {]Xnm_\mbncpp. {InkvXpaXs D]{Zhn B F \nebn hnip kvtXmt\mkns ckmnXzn kPoh ]p hlnp. Hcn iu sbcpitean \nv ZamkvIkntebvv bm{X sNptm Dbsgpt\ \{kmb\mb tbip shfnn Ah\v {]Xysp; Atls A\mn. Fm aqp Znhkn\ptijw ZamkvIknse A\\ymkv Ahs ImgvN ]p\m]np. AXn\ptijw \kdmb\mb tbip blqZ ainlmbpw ssZh]p{X\pamsWv {]kwKnphm XpSn. ]cnh\n\p tijw ]utemkv t\sc Atd_ybntepw ]noSv Zamkvtmknepw t]mbn. (KemXy 1:17) aqp hjġptijw Atlw Pdpitew kinp. AhnsS hnip bmtm_ns\ IpappIbpw iotam ]t{Xmkns IqsS ]Xn\v Znhkw XmaknpIbpw sNbvXp. (KemXy 1:1324) X\nv kphntijw e`nXv a\pjy\n\n, adnv, tbip{InkvXphns shfnsSpeneqsS BsWv Atlw hmZnp.

"Fmw \mfn ]cntZ\ Gh; bn{kmtb PmXnmc; s_\yman tKm{Xmc; F{_mbcn \np P\n F{_mb; \ymb{]amWw kw_np ]coi; ipjvmn kw_np k`sb D]{Zhnh; \ymb{]amWnse \oXn kw_np A\ny.': Fns\bmWv Atlw kzbw hntijnnXv. (^nennb 3:56) Xm "Hcp ]coi\pw ]cois aI\pw Bbncpp' Fv (AtmkvtXme{]hnI 23:6) ]utemkv Xs ]nXmhns\ ]cmainXmbn {]hnI Dcnpp, Xs A\nch, s]fpsS aIs\pdnv AtmktXme{]hnI 23:4 ]cmainppv. tdma 16:7, Xs _pfmb As{m\nsmknt\bpw bq\nbmhnt\bpw Ipdnv, Ah X\npapt Xs {InkvXym\nI Bbncppshpw AtmkvtXmemcpsS CSbn \mbn Adnbshcpw Bbncppshv ]cmainpp. ssk{]kv Zzo]nshmWv iuens\ BZyambn ]utemkv Fp hnfnp ImWpXv.

blqZ \nbafptSbpw {]hN\fptSbpw ]cnm\n, tbip{InkvXphneqsS Fm \nbafpw {]hN\fpw ]qnbmbn Fv Atlw blqZmsc ]Tnnp t_m[ysSpn. Atlns hnimeamb A\p`hfpw hnZym`ymkhpw ]pdPmXnmcpsS CSbnse thebpw ]cnKWnv "hnPmXnbcpsS AtmkvtXme' F ]Zhn Atln\p \In. (tdma 1:5; 11:13; KemXy 2:8) tdma km{amPyn kphntijw ^e{]Zambn {]Ncnnm\pw k`I m]nm\pw ]nmev Cu _lpaXn D]Icnp.

hnip ]utemkns teJ\:
XncpshgppIsf Xpe\w sNptm ]gb\nbanse ko\fpw ]pXnb\nbanse hnip ]utemkns teJ\fpw Ghpw Xnfam Imhy tPymXnpIfmbnmWv IcpXsSpXv. F{_mb teJ\w DssS ]Xn\mev teJ\fmWv ]pXnb\nban ]utemkntsXv IcpXsSpXv. ]pXnb\nban GXmv \men Hcp `mKw hnip ]utemkns IpIfmWv. kphntij Ignm Ghpw {]m[m\yw Alnphbpw Ah Xs. hnip ]utemkns IpI Hmtcmpw Hmtcm {]tXyI kmlNcyn FgpXsXmWv. Hmtcm k`bptSbpw {]tXyI {]iv\fpw shphnfnIfpw IWnseSpv Ahbvv ]cnlmcfpw amZi\fpw \IpXn\mWv Cu IpI DtinncpXv Fnepw, ]cnipm {]tNmZ\m FgpXsh BbXpsImv AhbpsS km{XnIamb {]kn hfsc hepXmWv. Fs^ky, ^nen]y, sImtemky Fo aqp teJ\ XShn Bbncnptm cNnXmbXn\m Ahsb "Imcm{Kl teJ\' Fv AdnbsSpp. KemXysXktem\nIy teJ\sf ]utemkns BZyIme teJ\fmbn IcpXsSpp. ]utemkv hynIġb \mev teJ\ Dv. Xotamntbmkn\p cpw, Xotmkn\pw ^netam\pamWv Cu IpI. `n A`n{]mb Dsnepw F{_mb teJ\s ]mccyambn ]utemkntsXv hnizknsSpp.

AtmkvXe{]hnIfpsS ]IpXntbmfw hnip ]utemkns PohnXtbpw {]hnItfbpw Ipdnv {]Xn]mZnpp. Ingpw ]Snmdpap Fm k`Ifntebpw, ssZhimkv{Xntbpw Bcm[\bptSbpw CSbPohnXntbpw kp{][m\ thcpIfmbn hnip ]utemkns teJ\ XpScpp. {InkvXob Nnbnepw {]tbmKnepw hnip ]utemkns kzm[o\w, ss{IkvXhhnizmkns hym]\n Gsncp ap AtmkvtXmemtcmfpw anj\dnamtcmfpw, hym]IambXpw AKm[hpsav hntijnsSpp.

tdmasgpXnb teJ\w:
]utemkv tdmasgpXnb teJ\w FgpXnbXv t{Xmhmkntep bm{Xmasy sImcnn Kmbkns `h\n AYnXnbmbn XmaknptmgmsWv A\pam\npp. Kmbkv Hcp sImcny Bbncpp. ]utemkns IsgppImc sXntbmkv [Amanuensis Tertius] BWv Cu Iv BteJ\w sNbvXv ]InbncnpXv. IsgpXnbtijw ]utemkv AhnsSbp ]mhs hnipmv tiJcn klmb[\hpambn Pdpkteantev t]mIm\ncnbmbncpp. {]hnI 20:3 CXv tcJsSpnbnpv. AhnsS ]utemkv aqp amkw {Kokn XmaknpshmWv dntmv. ]utemkns {Koknse Ghpw henb anj\dn hnPbns m\w sImcnmbncpp. tdmakv 16:23 ]cmainp Fdkvkv sImcnn Xmaknncpp. tdmammp teJ\w BZy m\w ]nSnncnpXv XnbXnbpsS apKW\ sIm, adnv DSns AXnibIcamb anIhp sImmWv. CXv Fmnepw ssZLytadnbXpw ]qhpw BWv. hnip ]t{Xmkv kqNnnpXpt]mse [2 Peter 3:16] Cu teJ\w (15:26) ZpcqlXI \ndXpw a\nemm ITn\hpamWv.

sImcnnbsgpXnb teJ\:
Xs cmas anj\dn bm{XbpsS Ahkm\n, tImcnn \npw 180 ssa AIsebp Cs XpnbpsS ]Snmd Xocp Fs^tkmkntev t]mIpXn\pap]v hnip ]utemkv sImcnn k` m]np. AhnsS \nv ssIkcnbbntepw AtymIybntepw t]mbn. aqmas anjy\dn bm{Xbn hopw Atlw Ft^tkmkntev aSn hp. GItZiw app hjtmfw Atlw AhnsS Xmaknp. ({]hnI 19:8, 19:10, 20:31) Ft^tkmkn XmaknpXn\nsSbmWv Akqb, i{XpX, A[mnI s]cpamw Fnhsbpdnv sImcny kaqlns Akzamb hm Atln\p e`nXv. sImcny k` ]utemkn\v Ab Ins ASnm\n (7:11) hnhmlw, hn{Klġv An amwkw `n XpSn \nch[n Imcyfn hyX \Im k` Bhiysncppshpw hyamIpp. Ft^tkmknse ZoLIme XmakthfbnemWv sImcnnbp Hmw teJ\w FgpXnbXv Fp A\pam\nsSpp. IqSmsX XntamsYtbmkns\ AhcpsS ASptv Abmw F ]cmaihpw Dv. ({]hnI 19:22, 1 sImcny 4:17)

sImcnyp cmw teJ\n AtmkvtXme\mb ]utemkpw Xotamn F kl FgppImc\pw sImcnybnse k`tbbpw Cs {Kokns Npp]mSnep AJmbbnse hnizmknItfbpw A`nkwt_m[\ sNpp. 2 sImcny 1:1 2 sImcny 16:6 kqNnnXpt]mse Ft^tkmknse Xs ZoLIme Xmakns Ahkm\ kabmbncnmw cmw XhW sImcny k` kinpp. 2 sImcny 2:1 thZ\mP\Iamb ki\w FmWv CXns\ hntijnnpXv. hnip ]utemkns "Iocns Hcp ImWv' cmw sImcnyteJ\w. sImcny k`sb aqmw {]mhiyw kinm\p Xs B{Klw In tcJsSppp. 2 sImcny FgpXnb tijw ]utemkv aqmw {]mhiyw sImcny kinp. ImcWw {]hnI 20 (2,3) aqpamkw Xm {Kokn sNehgnXmbn kqNnnpp. Cu kabv tdmasgpXnb In k`bnse Nne {]apJ hynIfn \npw A`nhmZyw AnpXmbn tdmammsc Adnbnpp.

Pdpiteanse \n[\cmb hnizmknIġv klmblkvXw \opXn ]ptNcm Atlw sImcnysc DZvt_m[nnpp. Xm\pw kl{]hIcpw t\cn At\Iw ImSpIsfpdnpw bmX\Isfpdnpw AhcpsS Dmln\pw abvpw klnjvWXbvpw thnbp Dtifpw t{]mml\fpw In DZvt_m[nnpp. AhnizmknIfpambn CS]gIpXns\Xnsc Atlw sImcnyv Pm{KX \Ipp. sImcnn Xs ktcv \innm {ian hymP {]hIcpsS \nyamb Btcm]Wfn \npw ]utemkv Xtbpw kl{]hItcbpw \ymboIcnpp.

KemXy teJ\w:
KemXybnepw {^pKybnepw D \nch[n BZyIme ss{IkvXh kaqlġv ]utemkv AtmkvXe FgpXnb teJ\amWv KemXy teJ\w. AtmkvXenI bpKnse hnPmXob {InkvXym\nItfbpw tamssiI \ymb{]amWtbpw Ipdnp XnemWv ]utemkv {][m\ambpw {inpXv. {InkvXphns shfnsSpens shfnn \ymb{]amWns ]v kt`mNnXamn hnPmXob KemXy tamssiI \ymb{]amWns, {]tXyInv aX]camb ]pcpj ]cntZ\bpsS ASnm\ ]ment Bhiyansv ]utemkv hmZnpp. KemXyp teJ\w {InkvXpaXns Ncn{Xw, {InkvXy ssZhimkv{Xns hnImkw, AtmkvXe\mb ]utemkns ]T\w Fnhbn hfscb[nIw kzm[o\w sNepnbnpv. \ymb{]amW {]hnIfnmsX hnizmkmep \oXoIcWns almb kphntij knmw Dundbm\pw ]cn]menm\pw, AXns\pdnv AhcpsS a\n DmIm kmyXbp Nne _pnappI Hgnhmm\pw Atlw kzbw k\mIpp. Cu kp{][m\ knmw m]ntijw, {InkvXp Ahsc kzX{cmnb kzmX{yn Ddp\nm\pw, Cu kzmX{ys Zpcp]tbmKw sNpXns\Xnsc apdnbnv \Im\pw Ahv Bhiyamb \nch[n D]tZifpw \ntifpw \Ipp. sXmbn ]Tnnphscpdnpw Ahp e`np insbpdnpw \ymbamb hnhcWw \In teJ\w Ahkm\nnpp.

Ft^ky teJ\w:
]Snmd Gjyssa\dnse (Ctmgs Xpn) Ghpw {][m\s \Kcambncpp Fs^tkmkv. "{InkvXym\nItf ]ckv]cw HptNcpI' FXmWv Ft^ky teJ\ns apJyamb {]tabw. ]mccya\pkcnv tdmanse Imc{Kln BbncptmgmWv Cu Iv FgpXnbXv Fv A\pam\nsSpp. ssZhns imizX eyntbpw Ir]bptSbpw AfhpI \mbn a\knempXn\pw ssZhns IcpWIsf hneaXnpXn\pw, hmb\mcpsS Nnm N{Ihmfsf hnIknnpI F DtitmsSbmWv hnip ]utemkv Cu teJ\w FgpXnbnpXv. ss{IkvXh AkvXnXzw tIhew `uXoI Xen am{Xa, ssZhns hep`mKv {InkvXphns\ Dbp kzn\nv AXns Ahpw {]m[m\yhpw e`npp. "kzob taJeI' F Bh\fn \npw Cu Bibw shfnhmsSpp. hnizmknbpsS {]mtbmKnI ssZ\wZn\ PohnXw ssZhns Dtiyġmbn {]tbmP\sSpWw. {InkvXphns t\XrXznep k`bpsS sFIyw {InkvXphn\p Iognep, "kznepw `qanbnepap Fmw' sFIysSpXns\ apIqn ImWnpp.

^nennb teJ\w:
]cnip\mb ]utemkv AtmkvXes teJ\sf hnhn[fmbn Xcw Xncnptm ^nennb teJ\w DsSpXv Xs Imcm{Kl teJ\fpsS hn`mKnemWv. ]utemkns Imcm{Kl teJ\ \mseamWv DXv. Fs^kyteJ\w, ^nennbteJ\w, sImsemkyteJ\w, ^ntemtams\gpXnb teJ\w. Cu \mep Imcm{KlteJ\fn BZys aqsw aqv k`mIqmbvaIsgpXnbXpw \mematXv Hcp hynsgpXnbXpamWv. ]utemkv AtmkvXes ap teJ\fpw ^nennbsgpXnb teJ\hpw XmcXaysSpptm Cu teJ\w XcXtay\ IqSpX lrZyamb teJ\amsWp \app a\nemIpw. Xs hynKX PohnXnse [mcmfw A\p`h Cu teJ\n DsSpnbncnpp. ap k`ItfmSpw kaqltfmSpw kwhZnpXnt\m IqSpX lrZyambn AtmkvXe Cu teJ\n a\p Xpdpp. Npcpndm, ]utemkv AtmkvXe ^nennb teJ\w FgpXnbncnpXv lrZbns `mjbnemWv. hmbnphv B lrZyX A\p`hsSpIbpw sNpw.

^nennb k`tbmSv ]utemkv AtmkvXe\v At`Zyamb Hcp B_w Dmbncpp. AtmkvXe m]nnp k`I At\Iapmbncpp. Fm Xs B]pIfnepw Bhiyfnepw D]IcnsncpXv ^nennb k`bmbncpp. AtmkvXes `mjbn Xs ]dm IqmbvabpsS hess \ophm kambXv ^nennb k`bmbncpp. "Fnepw Fsd IXbn \n Iqmbva ImWnXp \mbn. ^nennbtc, kphntijtLmjWnsd Bcw`n Rm astZm\ybn \np ]pdsmsd \n am{XamsX Hcp k`bpw hchp Nnehp Imcyn FtmSp Iqmbva ImWnn Fp \nfpw Adnbpp. sXsem\oIybnepw Fsd _pnapp Xom \n Hpcp hw Abp Xphtm. Rm Zm\w B{Klnpp F, \nfpsS IWntep Gdp ^ew At{X B{KlnpXp.' (^nennb 4:1417) "Fsd {]nbcpw hmnXcpamb ktlmZcmtc, Fsd ktmjhpw IncoShpambptmtc' FmWv ^nennb k`sb AtmkvXe A`nkwt_m[\ sNpXv.

sImtemky teJ\w:
ehtZmIybn \npw sldmtmfokn \npw hfsc AIemsX nXn sNbvXncp sImtemky {^pKybnse Hcp {][m\ \Kcambncpp. CXv Ctm Ahinfn IpgnnSsncnpp. AXns HmI Cu teJ\n {][m\ambpw kwcnsSpp. BNmc]camb \nbaw ]mentXns BhiyIX AannSn blqZ XovWXbphcpsS A]ISspdnv Ahv apdnbnv \IpI FXmWv sImtemky teJ\ns cq]I\. hnPmXob XzNnsb {InkvXob Xzfpambn IqntpXns\Xnsc Ahsc insSppp. sImtekycpsS ncXbnepw Dmlnepw teJI\mb ]utemkv henb kwXr]vXn {]ISnnpIbpw ntcmml\n\v Ahsc t{]cnnpIbpw Blzm\w sNpIbpw sNpp. tdman XShpImc\mbncns Ft^kypw ^nennbpw FgpXnb AtX epw AtX Imebfhnepw BWv Cu teJ\hpw FgpXnbXv Fv A\pam\nsSpp. Xs XShn hnip ]utemkv \njv{Inb\mbncpn. ssZhhN\w _nsncpn.

Cu teJ\w FgpXnbXv Xm tdmammv FgpXnbXpt]mse, Xm Hcnepw Innm, hyn]cambn ]cnNbanm Hcp k`bvpw kaqln\pw thn Bbncpp. sImtemkybn k` m]nXv ]utemkv Bbncpn, adnv, hnPmXnbnSbn kphntijw {]kwKnm ]utemkv \ntbmKn F{^mkns ip{iqjbmembncpp. Fncpmepw sImtemkybn, ap k`IġnSbn {]ikvXhpw ]knhpamb, Xgphf Hcp k` Dmbncpp. Xm \phfnbXsnepw hnip ]utemkv ap k`Isf AhKWnncpn, Xs teJ\ FgpXpXn bmsXmcp thXncnhpw Imnbncpn. F{^mkns ip{iqjbm ]cnh\w sNs sImtemkybnse hnizmknI Atln\v {]obsh Bbncpp. kl{]hIv _lpam\w \IWsapw {]hnbn \nkzmcmbncnWsapw hnizmknI Xn thXncnhpw AkaXzhpw ImcpsXpw hnip ]utemkv CXn IqSn \apv amXrI ImWnpXcpp.

sXktem\ny teJ\:
sXktem\ny ]v amkntUmWnbmbnse Hcp {][m\ hmWnPy \Kcambncpp. Gjybnse {]hniyIfntev t]mIm\p cq]I\bn\nv hyXnNenv AtmkvXe\mb ]utemkv amkntUmWnbmbn kphntijw {]kwKnm Akm[mcWamb coXnbn \ntinsp. ssZhns hnfnv A\pkcWtmsS Atlw t]mbn. t{Xmhmbn\nv ktamt{Xjybntepw AhnsS\nv t\tmfnkntepw ]ns ^nennbntepw t]mbn, ip{iqjbn \ hnPbw t\Sn. bm{Xbnepw Azm\nepw ITn\amb D]{Zh t\cnp, HSphn ]utemkpw ioemkpw Imcm{Kln ASbvsp. AXn \nv ApXIcambn tamNnnsSpIbpw ktlmZcmsc Bizknnv bm{XbmIpIbpw sNbvXp. Bw^nt]mfnkneqsSbpw AsmtfmWnbmbneqsSbpw sXktem\nymbn Fn, AhnsS hnizmknIfmb sblqZmcpw aX]cnh\w sNbvX hnPmXnbcpw ASp Hcp k` AtmkvXe m]np.

sXktem\nybnse {InkvXp k`bvv FgpXnb Hmw teJ\w ]utemkns Fm teJ\fptSbpw BZytXmsWv IcpXsSpp AtmkvtXmes {]kwKw AhnSbn t\Snb \ hnPbn\v \n {]ISnnpI, Ahsc hnizmkn m]npI, hnip kw`mjWntev Ahsc t{]cnnpI FnhbmWv Cu teJ\ns Dtiyw.

Xs Hmas teJ\w aqeapmb sXnmcWI XncppXn\pthn Imehnfw_anmsX FgpXnb teJ\amWv sXtem\nbp cmw teJ\w. Imhns cmw hchns\pdnv DXmbncpp Cu sXnmcW. Imhv DSXs XncnphcpsamWv Ah sXmbn a\knemnbXv. ]gb\nbanse {]hmNImcpsS `mjmt`ZtmSv tbmPnp Atlns BhnjvImcfn NneXv sXmb coXnbn D]tbmKnpXv XSbphm AtmkvtXme {imephmbn. Imhns cmw hchn\p appmtI, s]mXphmb hnizmkXymKw [General Apostacy] , FXn{InkvXphns hchv [Revelation of AntiChrist] Fo cp kp{][m\ Imcysfpdnv Ahsc Pm{KXsSpn. IqSmsX, ImSpIġp Iognep AhcpsS Bizmkspdnpw ISaIfpsS DZvt_m[\sbpw amZi\tbpw Ipdnv Ahsc HmsSppp.

XnsamsYsbmkns\gpXnb teJ\:
CXphscbp ]utemkns teJ\ k`Iġmbncppshn C\nbpXv hynIġmWv. Xntamnbpw Xotmkpw kphntijImcmbncpp. kphntijIsc anj\dn thebvv kampI F DtitmsS FgpXnb Cu teJ\ ]mkvd teJ\fmWv. "Ah Nnesc AsmkvXemcmbpw Nnesc {]hmNImcmbpw Nnesc kphntijImcmbpw Nnesc CSbmcmbpw D]tZmmcpbpw \nbanncnpp;' (Fs^ky 4:11) kphntijImcpsS \ntbmKhpw tPmenbp AtmkvtXmemcpsS t]mseXs Bbncpp; k`I m]npI, Ahsc ]cn]menp hfpI. Xntamn Fp Npcpn ]dbp XntamsYtbmkv ]utemkns kl bm{XnI\mbncpp. XntamsYtbmkns\ sZbnepw epkv{Xbnepw shv BZyw ]cnh\w sNbvXXv ]utemkv Bbncpp: AXn\m hnizmkn Ahs\ kz ]p{X Fp hnfnpp. hnizmknbmb Hcp sblqZkv{XobpsS aI\mbncpp XnsamsYsbmkv. A bh\\mbncpp. epkv{Xbnepw Ctm\ybnepap ktlmZcmcn \ kmyw sIm hnizkvX Bbncpp. Ahsd A bh\ Fp AhnSfnep sblqZm Fmhcpw AdnncpXn\m Ahsc hnNmcnp Ahs\ ]cntZ\ Ignnp. [Acts 16:3]

Fs^tkmknse Hcp kphntijIs\ \nebn Xs ISa Fs\ \nlnmsav XnsamsYtbmknt\mSv \ntinpI FXmWv Cu cp teJ\fptSbpw hym]vXn. AhnsS Atlw Bcw`n \ {]hnI ]qoIcnm IpdpImew IqSn AhnsS Xmaknm ]utemkv AtltmSv BhiysSpp. tdman XShpImc\mbn Poh A]ISnembncnptmgmWv ]utemkv Xntamnv cmas teJ\w FgpXnbXv. Xs PohnXw Ahkm\nm kabambncnpp F Bi hnip ]utemkv {]ISnnpp. Hcp]s CXv ]utemkv Ahkm\w FgpXnb teJ\w Bbncnmsav IcpXsSpp. BapJn\ptijw XnsamsYtbmknt\mSp Bmamb kvt\lw {]ISnnpIbpw hnhn[fmb D]tZi \IpIbpw sNpp. XnsamsYtbmkns hnizmkn\pw hnipnpw ]utemkv ssZhtmSv \n ]dbpp; Xs {]m\bn Atls kvacnpp.

Xotmkns\gpXnb teJ\w:
{InkvXpaXntev hnip ]utemkv ]cnh\w sNbvX Hcp {Kov hnPmXnb\mbncpp Xotmkv; {]Xyn AtymIybn \np Bfmbncpp Atlw. BZyImefn {Kop XzNnbpw IhnXbpw ]TnXmbn IcpXsSpp. hnip ]utemkns sk{Idn Bbpw hymJymXmhmbpw tkh\a\pjvTnp. tamssiI BNmcfpsS hnjbn sPdpitean \S BZy Iuknen kw_nm Atlw ]utemknt\msSmw t]mbncpp. Xs ip{iqj blqZmnSbn kzoImcyampXn\mbn ]utemkv XnsamsYtbmkns ]cntZ\bvv kXnncpsnepw Xotmkns Imcyn AXv A\phZnn. Hmw sImcnymteJ\w FgpXnbtijw ]utemkv sImcnntep thZ\mP\Iamb Xs cmas ki\w \Sn. CXpapeapmb hogvNbvv ]cnlmcambn cmw sImcnyteJ\hpw sImSpv Xotmkns\ Fs^tkmkn \nv tImcnntev Abp. tdmanse BZys Pbn hmkn\nv tamNnX\mb ]utemkv {]kwKnm\mbn t{I Zzo]n [Crete Island] Xmaknpshv BZyIme ]mccyfn ]dbpp. t{I Zzo]nse _njmbn Xotmkns\ Ahtcm[np. ]noSv Xotmkv t{Ibnse Fm \Kcnepw aqmsc [Presbyters] \nbanpIbpw, AhnsS hmIyn XpScpIbpw sNbvXp.

Xotmkns\gpXnb teJ\w Xotmkns\ A`nkwt_m[\ sNpIbpw aqmcptSbpw sa{XmmcptSbpw BhiyIXIfpw ISaIfpw hnhcnpIbpw sNpp. blqZ {InkvXym\nIfn Nnesc hymP D]tZmmcmbn ]utemkv Xncndnbpp. hnaXcpw, \nbaw ]Tnnppshv AhImisSp iq\yambn kwkmcnphcpw, hnizkvXsc hgnsXnp hIcpw, hyambn kwkmcnphcpw, `npw `bn\pw Hpw kw`mh\ sNm \nmcamb D]tZi \Iphcpamb hymP D]tZjvTImsc kqnpsIphm hnip ]utemkv Xotmkns\ D]tZinpp.

^ntemtam\v FgpXnb teJ\w:
{^pKybnse Hcp \Kcamb sImtemky k`bnse Hcp ip{ipI\pw ]utemkns kl{]hI\pw, [\nI\pw, kaqlnse Hcp ]uc{]apJ\pamb ^ntemtam\v Ht\kntamkv F Hcp ASna Zmk Dmbncpp. Atlw Xs bPam\s kXanmsX HmSntmbn, tdman Fntp. ]utemkns {]kwKw {ihn Ht\kntamkv ssZhm\p{Klm tbip{InkvXphn hnizknv aX ]cnh\w sNbvXp. kphntijns XShpImc\mbncp ]utemkv AtmkvtXmes\ _\fn IpdpImew Ht\kntamkv ip{ipjnp. Atlw Hcp ASnabmsW Imcyw ]utemkv BZyw Adnncpn. Fm Atlw asmcmfpsS Zmk\msWv Adn DS Xs DSabpsS kXanmsX XSpshbvmsX Cu ItmSpIqSn Atls Xs bPam\\mb ^ntemtams ASptv aSn Abpp. bPam\s kXanmsX XSpshXn\v a tNmZnpw Atlns IS Xm kzbw honsmmsav kXnpw hfsc A`n\\mlamb coXnbnemWv hnip ]utemkv Ht\kntamkns\ aSn AbpXv.

F{_mbsgpXnb teJ\w:
thZimkv{XmcpsS CSbn Xapsnepw F{_mb teJ\w ]utemkntXmsWmWv ]ccmKXambn hnizknp t]mcpXv. koamb Hcp ]pXnb\nba {Kw Fp hntijnsSp Cu cN\ Hcp amkv]okv F JymXn t\Sn. sPdpktean Xmaknncp blqZ {InkvXym\nIġpthnbmWv CXv FgpXnbXv Fv IcpXsSpp. Imcyns ZnhyXzw, ssienbpsS BVw`cw, cq]I\bpsS anIhv, thZ{Kٯns ap `mKfpambp sFIyw, Fm ImeLnepw ssZhk`bn AXns s]mXp kzoIcWw apXembh F{_mb teJ\ns Znhy A[nImcns sXfnhpIfmWv. {InkvXob hnizmktmSv \nccw ]n\nm hnizmknIfmb F{_mbsc t{]cnnpIbpw AXn Ddp\npIbpw sNpI FXmbncpp Cu teJ\ns cq]I\.

Amev Nne hnizmknI {IkvXphns\ XfpsS cI\mbn kzoIcnXns t]cnep ]oV\fn \nv csSm\mbn blqZ aXntev XncnbpXns\pdnv BtemNnncpp. AXpsImv ]oV\s t\cnSm {InkvXym\nIsf DZvt_m[nnpI FXmbncpp teJ\ns Hcp Dtiyw. {InkvXphns hynbpsS D]tZihpw ssZhhpw a\pjycpw Xnep ays\ \nebnep ]pamWv teJ\ns {]tabw.

hnip bmtm_pw bmtm_ns teJ\hpw:
bmtm_ns teJ\ns cNbnXmhv sk_ZnbpsS aI bmtm_mbncpn, adnv tbiphns IpSpw_ ktlmZc A^mbnbpsS aI\mb, ]{v AtmkvtXmemcn Hcph\mb \oXnam\mb sNdnb am bmtm_v Bbncpp. Dbnsgpt {InkvXp kzbw ImWn hynIfn HcmfmWv bmtm_v. AtmktXmenI bpKnse Pdpitew k`bpsS BZyIme t\Xmhmbncpp hnip bmtm_v. bmtm_ns hninamb kKpWfm BWv Atls \oXnam Fp hnfnncpXv [James the Just] . Pdpitew k`bpsS FnkvtIm knwlmk\ntev XncSps BZys sa{Xmtmeo Bbncpp bmtm_v. Ahtijnp Ghpw ]gapXpw Cpw B[nIcnIhpw Bb Bcm[\m{Iaw [Liturgical Thaksa] bmtm_ntsXv hntijnsSpp. BZyIme {InkvXy kaqlambncp Pdpitew k`bn bmtm_pw ]s{Xmkpw t\Xmfmbncpp. ]utemkn\v Cu k`bpambn _apmbncpp. sltcmZmhv A{KnmbpsS h[{ian\ptijw ]s{Xmkv sPdpitew hnpt]mb Imew apX AhnSs {][m\ A[nImcnbmbn bmtm_v Ahtcm[nsp. ]utemkns teJ\fnepw bmtm_ns\ Hcp {][m\ XqWmbnmWv hntijnnnpXv. atmkns kphntijn Cfb bmtm_ntbpw tbmk^ns Abpw Bb adnbsb ]cmainppv. AXpsImv bmtm_ns A nsbm^kv adnb BsWv hnizknpt]mcpp.

Pcpiteanse hnizmknIġmbn Xm kzcq]n klmb[\w ssIamdm ]utemkv ssIkcybnse Nne injymcpsamv Pcpitean Fptm bmtm_ns\ kinp. Ips{]mkvImc\mb av\mtkm F Hcp ]gb injyt\mSp IqsS AXnYnIfmbn Bbncpp Xmakw. sbcqiteanse ktlmZcm ktmjtmsS Ahsc ssIsmp. ip{iqjIcmb aqm Atls kvt\lnpIbpw, _lpam\nbpw, Ah sNbvX Imcy AwKoIcnbpw, ktlmZc Fv hnfnpIbpw sNbvXp. ]nsp s]utemkpw Iqcpw bmtm_nsd ASp t]mbn; aqmcpw Fmw AhnsS hp IqSn.

bmtm_v Ahsc h\w sNbvXp ssZhw PmXnIfpsS CSbn sNn Xsd ip{iqjI tIp ssZhs alXzsSpn. ]ns bmtm_v kuay\mbn ]utemknt\mSv ]dXp: "ktlmZcm, sblqZmcpsS CSbn hnizknncnph At\I Bbnc Dp Fp \n\v Adnbmasm; Ah Fmhcpw \ymb{]amWXev]cmcpw \nbanepw BNmcfnepw XovWX Dhcpw BIpp. asf ]cntZ\ sNcpXp Fpw \o PmXnIfpsS CSbnep kIe sblqZmtcmSpw ]dp tamisb Dt]np Ifhm D]tZinpp Fp Ah \nspdnp sXn [cnncnpp. \o hnpp Fp P\ Adnbpw \nbw.' ]utemkns D]tZis IrXyambn thXncndnbm Ahp Ignn AXn\m AXbneqsS Ah AXns\ samn A]e]np. Cu Imcyn Ah {]tIm]nXcmbnpXpsImv, Xs hnizmkw sXfnbnm\pw, sltdmZns sblqZm tZhmebn ]ckyambn BNmc]cambn kzbw ipoIcnm\pw blqZ \nbaamb tXmdbvv hntcm[ambn adpp {]hnpp F A`yqlw \ntj[nm\pw, BNmc]camb blqZ \nba ]menpXneqsS hnizmknIsf Xr]vXnsSpm\pw bmtm_v ]utemknt\mSv \ntinpp; "Fm \nssmp tIXp DX Fpw, \obpw \ymb{]amWs BNcnp {Iaambn \Sph Fpw Fmhcpw Adnbpw.' BNmc]camb \nbaw hnPmXnb aX]cnhIcpsSta Hcp Xcnepw ASntnsSnnepw, Xm {]kwKn aXw \nbaw \innm\, \ndthm\mWv Fv Ahsc a\knemphm\mbn \ymb{]amWn XovWXbp Cu blqZmcpsS a\imnmbn, bmtm_ns D]tZi{]Imcw, s]utemkv ]pcpjmsc Iqnsmp ]nsm AhtcmSpIqsS Xs ipn hcpn ssZhmebn sNp; Ahcn Hmtcmcpp thn hgn]mSp Ignm\p ipoIcWImew XnIp Fp t_m[nnp.

Pcpiteanse k`mt\Xm ]cntZ\tb ip{iqjI BsWpw, Fm ]utemkpw Iqcpw A{KNnIfmb s]mXp hnPmXnbcpsS CSbn ip{iqj sNpXn\m, cbvmbn hnPmXob {InkvXym\nIsf ]cntZ\ sNtXptm F Imcyn AtymJy kaqlw BimIpecmbncpp. ]utemknt\bpw __mknt\bpw Pcpitew k`bpambn N sNm Abp. Pdpitew Iuknen AyX hlnXv bmtm_mbncpp. ]s{Xmkv, ]utemkv, __mkv Fnhptijw Ahkm\ambn kwkmcn hyn bmtm_mbncpp. bmtm_v Fmhtcbpw ]npWpIbpw AhcpsS A`n{]mbtmSv tbmPnv Ay F \nebn Ay Xocpam\w {]Jym]npIbpw sNbvXp. IqSmsX cmnXw `npXpw hn{Klġpw ]ckwKn\pw _enbnpXn\pw hnev \ntinp. CXv Iuknens hn[nbmbnop. Fm AtmkvtXmemcpw aqmcpw kXnpIbpw av k`Iġv IpI AbpIbpw sNbvXp. Pcpitew Iuknen bmtm_v \Snb {]kwKw Atlns Xncpshgpnep B{ibw, k`bvpnse kam[m\n\p B{Klw, hnPmXob hnizmknItfmSp IcpX apXembh {]ISampp. aphcpsS ta AannSnp Ir]IfpsS Da DZmlcWambncpp hnip bmtm_v AtmkvtXme. \oXn, kz`mhw, `n apXembhbn k`bn Atls hfscb[nIw _lpam\nncpp. Pcpitean {]kwKnptm bmtm_ns\ blqZm Isdnp sImp Fv ]mccyw hnizknpp.

GsXnepw {]tXyI hynItm k`bvtm FgpXsXv Am Hcp Nm{Inb teJ\ambXpsImv Chsb s]mXp teJ\ [Catholic Epistles] Fp hnfnpp. {Iqins Iogn Fs\ kzbw s]cpamdWsav bmtm_ns teJ\w ]Tnnpp. \nch[n Ir]Ifpw NpaXeIfpw ip]mi sNpp; ]coWfpw ImSpIfpw klnph `mKyhmm Fv {]Jym]nsSpIbpw almb {]Xn^ew Ddp \IpIbpw sNpp. ssZhhN\w \psS apJy ]mTamn amWw. \ tIXpw AdnIbpw sNp Imcy {]mhnIamWw. Am]w \psS hnizmkhpw aXhpw sXfnbnpXv hyamb ImcyamWv. hnizmkw t]mse Xs {]m[m\yapXmWv {]hnbpw. hnizmkw Cm {]hnbpw {]hn Cm hnizmkhpw Aiq\yamsWXmWv bmtm_p teJ\ns kmcmwiw.

hnip ]t{Xmkpw ]t{Xmkns teJ\fpw:
tbm\mbpsS ]p{X\pw AtmkvtXme\mb A{tbmkns ktlmZc\pw Bb iotam ]t{Xmkv sKkscv XSmInse s_ZvskbvZm ]Wnse Hcp blqZ apph aysmgnemfn Bbncpp. AtmkvtXme\mb ^nentmkpw CtX ]Wn \npw Bbncpp. tbiphns\ NqnmWnv "CXm, ssZhnsd IpmSp' F tbmlm kv\m]Is kmyw tI A{tbmkv, iotamt\mSv R aiolsb Fp shm {InkvXpsh Isnbncnpp Fp ]dp. tbip Ktkscv XSmIn iotams ]SIn Ibdn\nv, ssZhhN\w tItXnp Ahs\ Xnnsmncp ]pcpjmctmSv kphntijw {]kwKnp Xotm Ah iotamt\mSp: Bgntep \on ao]nSnnp he Cdphn Fp ]dp. Ah tbiphns\ A\pkcnv Ahs hmn\v hebndn; s]cp aoIqw AIsp he Iodmdmbn. cm{Xn apgph\pw Azm\nnpw Hpw InmXncq Ah `bNInXcmbn. tbip iotamt\mSp: `bstSm, Cp apX \o a\pjysc ]nSnph BIpw Fp ]dp. Ah ]SIpIsf Iscp ASpnnp kIehpw hnp Ahs\ A\pKanp. A{]Imcw tbiphns BZy injy\mbno iotam ]t{Xmkv, injyKWn {]Ya\pw tbiphns ]ckyip{iqjbn Fm kw`hġpw kmnbpw ]mfnbpw Imhns {]tXyI ]cnKW\ e`nncp Bfpw Bbncpp.

tbip iotams\ ]md Fap tI^m F adpt] hnfnp. ]s{Xmtk \o ]mdbmIpp; Cu ]mdta Rm Fs k`sb ]Wnbpw Fv Imhv {]Jym]\w sNbvXp. aqp kam\ kphntijfpw, ITn\ Pzcw ]nSnncp ]t{Xmkns AmbnAsb I^lqan kpJsSpnb Imcyw hnhcnpp. Fm AtmkvtXmemcptSbpw hmhmbn BWv ]t{Xmkns\ Fm kphntijfnepw Nn{XoIcnncnpXv. tbip shůn\p apIfn \Stm ]t{Xmkpw Hcp \nanjw A{]Imcw sNphm {ianpshnepw hnizmkpdhv aqew apphm XpSn. tbiphns cq]moIcWw, bmbntdmkns aIsf Dbn, sKXvskta\ ]qtmnse thZ\ apXemb, ap ]e injympw Imm `mKyw e`nm, kw`hfn ]t{Xmkv ZrIvkmn Bbncpp. adcq] aebn tamibptSbpw Genbmhntbpw kmnyn, "Kptcm, aqp IpSnepI Dms; Hp \n\pw, Hp tamibvpw, asmv Genbmhn\pw' Fv \njvIfambn \ntinXv ]t{Xmkv Bbncpp. "\n Fs Bscp ]dbpp' F Imhmb tbip{InkvXphns tNmZyn\p apn, "\o kzn \npw Cdnh Poh\p ssZhns ainlm BsW' hnizmk{]amWw ]t{Xmkv Gp]dbpp.

]e injymcpw hnizmkXymKw sNpXpIv, tbip ]ncphtcmSv "\nġpw ]nncnpt]mIm a\ptm' Fp tNmZnp. AXn\v iotam ]s{Xmkv Aht\mSp: "Imth R BcpsS ASp t]mIpw? \nXyPohsd hN\ \nsd ] Dp' Fp adp]Sn ]dp. Imhmb tbip{InkvXp Xs s]mXp {]`mjW ]qnbmn s]klm Amgn\papv injymcpsS ImepIsf IgpIn. Ah iotam ]s{Xmknsd ASp htm XmgvabptSbpw FfnabptSbpw kqNIambn Xs Fmamb Kpcp Xs ]mZw IgpIpXn ]s{Xmkv hnkXw {]ISnnp. AXn\p tbip: Rm \ns IgpImm \n\p FtmSp IqsS ]n Fp Dcw ]dp. Atm iotam ]s{Xmkv: "Imth, Fsd Im am{Xa Ipw Xebpw IqsS IgptIWta' Fp At]nv Kpcphn\v hn\bsp. Ahcn Hcm Xs HnsmSppsav Imhv kqNnntm, CXp Bscpdnp ]dbpp Fp injym kwibnp Xn Xn t\mn. injymcn shp tbip kvt\ln, tbiphnsd amnSp Nmcnsmncp tbmlmt\mSv, ]s{Xmkv BwKyw Imn, Ah ]dXp Bscsmp Fp tNmZnm ]dp. Imth, AXp B Fp tbmlm tNmZnp. Rm AJw apnsmSpph Xt Fp tbip Dcw ]dp; Jw apn sImSpXv iotam CukvItcymmhnsd aI\mb bqsZp Bbncpp.

"Ipsd Ignv Ah Xs ImWpIbn' Fp tbip Xs {IqipacWspdnv kmysSpnbtm, iotam ]s{Xmkv Aht\mSp: Imth, \o FhnsS t]mIpp Fp tNmZnXnp: Rm t]mIp CStp \n\p Ctm Fs A\pKanm IgnIbn; ]noSv \o Fs A\pKanpw Fp tbip Aht\mSp Dcw ]dp. Rm Fsd Pohs\ \n\p thn shpIfbpw Fp ]s{Xmkv ]dXn\v, tImgn IqIpwapv \o aqp {]mhiyw Fs Xndbpw Fp Dcw ]dp. tbiphns\ AdkvpsNbvXtm, sKXvskta\ ]qtmn hmfpsImv alm]ptcmlnXs Zmk\mb amkns sNhn ]t{Xmkv apdnpIfp. tbip Ahs sNhnbn kv]inpIbpw ApXIcambn kpJsSppIbpw sNbvXp. tbiphns\ ]nSntijw hnNmcWmbn alm]ptcmlnX\mb I^mhns hontep sImpt]mbn. hmXn \nncp ]s{Xmkv tblms ip]mibm AIpIbdn. hmXn Imp _meymcnbpsS apnepw, Xo ImpsImncphcpsS apnepw, ImXdp atmkns Nmmcs apnepw ]s{Xmkv app {]mhiyw Kpcphns\ Adnbn Fp Xndp. Atm tImgn IqIn; ]s{Xmkv Kpcphns hmv Hmp, ]pdndn s\ps]mn Icp.

Dbnp RbdmgvN shfpn\v tbiphns Isd Fnb aKvZemcn adnb Isd XpdncnpXmbn Ip. Ah HmSn ]s{Xmknt\bpw tbmlmt\bpw hnhcw Adnbnp. Ah Ccphcpw HmSn, Isdbn tbiphns icocw s]mXnncp ioeI am{Xw Ip. aqmw Znhkw Xm Dbsgpt\psav ]dncp hmpI Hmp, Imhv ]p\cpm\w sNbvXp Fp hnizknp. hnip ]utemkns IpIfn{]Imcw Dbsgpt\h\mb {InkvXp BZyw {]XysXv ]s{Xmkn\mbncpp. injymcn Ggpt] Xnscymkv ISen ao ]nSnptm bmZrnIambn Imhv {]Xysp. B cm{Xn hfsc Azm\nnpw Hpw InmXncp Ah \ncmicmbncnptm ]SInsd hep `mKp he hoiphn Fp Ah AhtcmSp ]dp; Ah Ahs\ A\pkcnp. ao\nsd s]cpw tlXphmbn \q伯paqp henb ao \nd AXp henm Ahp Ignn. tbmlm Imhns\ Xncndnp; As\ Ahs\ Ahp shfnsSpn AhtcmsSmw `Ww Ignp. AXn\ptijw tbip iotam ]s{Xmknt\mSp: tbmlmsd aI\mb iotamt\, \o Chcn A[nIambn Fs kvt\lnppthm Fp tNmZnp. AXn\p Ah: Dp, Imth, F\np \ntmSp {]nbapp Fp \o Adnbpphtm Fp ]dp. Fsd IpmSpIsf tabv Fp Ah Aht\mSp ]dp. C{]Imcw aqp {]hiyw tNmZnp. ]s{Xmkns ]cn]me\n\mbn {InkvXp {]Xnm_ambncpXv Ahs BnIpnIfpw BSpIfpamWv. {InkvXphns k` Ahs BnIqamWv. {InkvXp As\ Xs thebvmbn \nbanv AtmkvtXmes _lpam\w ncoIcntijw hcm\ncnp ImSpIsfpdnpw ckmnbpsS _lpam\spdnpw ]s{Xmkn\v kqN\ \In.

Imhmb tbip{InkvXphns Heohpaebnse kzmtcmlWn\ptijw Kpcphns \ntim\pkcWw injyKWns t\Xrm\w ]t{Xmkv GsSpp. GItZiw \qncp]Xp t] Dmbncp BZys {]m\ Iqmbvasb A`nkwt_m[\ sNbvXv {]kwKnXv ]t{Xmkv Bbncpp. ]s{Xmkv ktlmZcmcpsS \Sphn Fgptp \np tbiphns\ ]nSnhp hgnImnbmbno bqZbpsS ]X\spdnv AhtcmSv hniZoIcnp. "Ahsd Aym\w asmcpp e`ns' F kpo\ hmIy{]Imcw bqZv ]Icambn, Imhmb tbip tbmlm\m kv\m\w kzoIcnXp apX \s hnp BtcmlWw sNbvX \m hsc \psS CSbn kcnp t]m Imesmw RtfmSp IqsS \S Hcm RtfmSp IqsS Ahsd ]p\cpm\np kmnbmbnotcWw Fp \ntinp. As\ Ah bpkvsXmkv Fp adpt]cp _i_m F tbmtk^v, anbmkv Fo cp t]sc \ndpn: Cu Ccphcn Ghs\ \o XncsSpncnpp Fp ImWnp XtcWta Fp {]mnp AhcpsS t]p Nonp; Nov anbmknp hogpIbpw Ahs\ ]Xns\mp AsmkvXemcpsS Iqn FpIbpw sNbvXp.

s]ssmkvXp\mfnse henb kwLs \bnXv hnip ]t{Xmkv Bbncp\p. Ah IqSnbncnptm sImSnb ImSnpXp t]mse BImip \np Hcp apgw Dmbn; AnPzme t]mse ]nfncnp \mhpI Ahp {]Xyambn Ahcn Hmtcmcpsdta ]Xnp. Fmhcpw ]cnipmmhp \ndhcmbn Bmhp Ahp Dcnm \InbXp t]mse A\y`mjIfn kwkmcnp XpSn. Fmhcpw {`anp Nenp; CXp Fmbncnpw Fp Xn Xn ]dp. Ch ]pXphop IpSnncnpp Fp ap Nne ]cnlknp ]dp. Atm ]s{Xmkv ]Xns\mp t]tcmSp IqsS \npsImp Dds AhtcmSp ]dXp: sblqZm]pcpjmcpw sbcqitean ]mp Fmhcpambptmtc, \n DulnpXp t]mse Ch elcn ]nSnhc; CXp tbmth {]hmNI apJmcw AcpfnsbvXXt{X. Bmhn \np ]IcpXv ]gb\nba hmKvZm\ns \nhnbmsWv ]t{Xmkv kanp. AXv {InkvXphns ainlm FXns ncoIcWambncpp. ]t{Xmkv {]kwKn {]`mjWn BZy^ew Dbphp: ]s{Xmknt\mSpw tijw AsmkvXemtcmSpw: ktlmZcmcmb ]pcpjmtc, R Fp sNtp Fp tNmZnp. ]s{Xmkv AhtcmSp: \n am\kmcsp \nfpsS ]m]fpsS tamN\nmbn Hmtcmcp tbip{InkvXphnsd \man kv\m\w Gev]n; Fm ]cnipmmhp F Zm\w e`npw Fp ]dp. Ahsd hmp ssIsmh kv\m\w Gp; Ap aqhmbnctmfw t] AhtcmSp tNp.

Hcn ]s{Xmkpw tbmlm\pw HXmw aWnt\cw {]m\mkabp ssZhmebntep t]mIpIbmbncpp. AbpsS K`w apX apS\mb Hcmsf Nne NpapsImp hp; Ahs\ ssZhmebn sNphtcmSp `n bmNnm kpcw F ssZhmebtKm]pcn Zn\{Xn Ccppambncpp. Ah ]s{Xmkpw tbmlm\pw ssZhmebn ISm t]mIpXp Inp `n tNmZnp. ]s{Xmkv tbmlmt\mSpIqsS Ahs\ Dpt\mn: Rsf t\mp Fp ]dp. Ah hXpw Inpw Fp IcpXn Ahsc kqnp t\mn. Atm ]s{Xmkv: shnbpw s]mpw F\nn; F\npXp \n\p Xcpp: \kdmb\mb tbip{InkvXphnsd \man \S Fp ]dp Ahs\ hessp ]nSnp Fgptev]np; Wn Ahsd Imepw \cnbmWnbpw Dsdp Ah IpXnsgptp \Sp; \Spw Xpnbpw ssZhs ]pIgvnbpwsImp AhtcmSpIqsS ssZhmebn ISp.

apSs\ kpJsSpbXpIv P\w itemtams a]n ]t{Xmkntbpw tbmlmtbpw Nppw IqSn. kuJyamnbXns am\s Ah XmgvatbmsS \ncmIcnp. XfpsS kz insImtm `nsImtm A Ahs\ \SpamdmnbsXpw X, blqZm Ipcnin XdpsIm tbiphns ip{iqjI am{XamsWpw kmoIcnp. X {]kwKnp hN\fpw AXns ap{ZIfpw, XfptSX, adnv, A{_mlmansdbpw bnkvlmnsdbpw bmtm_nsdbpw ssZhamb \psS ]nXmmcpsS ssZhw alXzsSpnb Xsd Zmk\mb tbiphntXmsWv AhtcmSv hniZoIcnp. Fm ]ptcmlnXmcpsS \n{]Imcw ]t{Xmknt\bpw tbmlmt\bpw Imcm{Kln ASv \ymbm[n]kwLns apmsI tNmZyw sNbvXp. Ah sNbvX Imcysf ss[cy]qw AwKoIcnpIbpw D]{ZhnhtcmSv {InkvXphns\ kmnpIbpw {]kwKnpIbpw sNbvXp. ssZhsm A[nIw \nsf A\pkcnpXp ssZhnsd apmsI \ymba Fv Ah hmZnp.

k` Zn\w{]Xn hfcpIbpw AtmktXmemcpsS, {]tXyInv ]t{Xmkns hnipnbpw ss[cyhpw Bobinbpw JymXnbpw hfpsImtbncpp. BZnak` FmhcptSbpw kzp s]mXphI Fp IcpXnbncpXn\m Ahcn apph Bcpw Dmbncpn. Fm A\\ymkv Xs `mcy k^odtbmSpIqsS ]cnipmmhns\Xnsc hymPw \ncp]nv kzn Hcp`mKw Hfnp shp. ]t{Xmkv m\Zrnbn AXp ImWpIbpw, hN\inbn in e`np B ZXnI acnp hogpIbpw sNbvXp. k k`pw CXp tIhp Fmhpw alm `bw Dmbn. tcmKnIsf ]pdpsImp hp, ]s{Xmkv ISp t]mIptm Ahsd \ng Fnepw Ahcn hhcpsSbpwta hotgXnp hoYnIfn hncnntepw InStaepw InSpw.

hnip kvsX^ms\mkns ckmn acWn\ptijw AsmkvXem HgnsI hnizmknI Fmhcpw sblqZy iacy tZifn NnXdntmbn. NnXdntmbh hN\w kphntijnpwsImp AhnShnsS kcnp. ^nensmkv iacy ]Wn sNp AhtcmSp {InkvXphns\ {]kwKnp; Aipmmsf ]pdmn, At\Iw tcmKnI skuJyw {]m]np; ]pcpjmcpw kv{XoIfpw kv\m\w Gp. B ]Wn hfsc ktmjw Dmbn. sbcpiteanep AsmkvXem, iacy ssZhhN\w ssIsmp Fp tIp ]s{Xmkns\bpw tbmlms\bpw AhcpsS ASp Abp. Ah ]cnipmmhp e`ntXnp Ahmbn {]mnp. Ah AhcpsSta ssIshtm Ahp ]cnipmmhp e`np. B ]Wn iotam Fp t]cptmcp ]pcpj B`nNmcw sNbvXp, Xm alm Fp ]dp iacy PmXnsb {`annp t]mp. AsmkvXem ssI shXn\m ]cnipmmhp e`nXp iotam Imsd Ahp {Zhyw sImphp: Rm Hcpsdta ssI shm Ahp ]cnipmmhp e`nm Xhw Cu A[nImcw F\npw XtcWw Fp ]dp. ]s{Xmkv Aht\mSp: ssZhnsd Zm\w ]Wnp hmnsmmw Fp \o \ncq]nsImp \nsd ]Ww \ntmSpIqsS \inp t]mIs Fp ]dp. Fm B`nNmcmc\mb iotam ]noSv A\pX]np; Ah\pthn {]mnm ]t{Xmknt\mSv At]np; \n ]dXp Hpw F\np `hnmXncnm Imhnt\mSp F\npthn {]mnn Fp ]dp.

kphntijI \p]nSnn At\Iw {]tZifnse k`Ifn ]t{Xmkv ki\w \Sn; kcnbn epbn ]mp hnipmcpsS ASpepw sNp. AhnsS ]hmXw ]nSnp Fp kwhcambn InSn Bbncp sFs\bmkv F a\pjys\ tbip{InkvXphns \man kuJyamn Fgpt\nv \Sn. tbmbn X_oYm Fp t]cp injy AkpJw ]nSns]p acnpt]mbn. ]s{Xmkv appIpn {]mnp ihnsd t\sc Xncnp: X_otb, Fgpt Fp ]dp; Ah Ip Xpdp ]s{Xmkns\ Ip Fgptp Ccpp. ]ns ]s{Xmkv tXmsm\mb iotamt\mSpIqsS hfsc\m tbmbn ]mp.

A{KNnIfmb hnPmXnbsc {InkvXob k`bn {]thinnm \ntbmKns BZys hynbmWv hnip ]t{Xmkv. BZy {]thi\w e`n hyn sImtentbmkpw. alm\mb sltcmZmhv ]pXpn ]WnXv AKkvkv kokdns _lpam\mw \maIcWw sNbvX ssIkcy F ISoc ]Wn sImteymkv Fp t]cp `\pw Zm\ioe\pw ssZh`bw Dh\pamb Hcp tdma iXm[n] Dmbncpp. GItZiw DIgnv aqp aWnv, XoctZiamb tbmbn tXmsm\mb iotams hon Xmaknncp ]t{Xmkns\ hcpphm Atln\v Hcp Zi\w Dmbn. ]ns Znhkw D {]m\bvmbn shmSn Ccnptm ]t{Xmkn\pw Hcp Zi\w Dmbn. Ah hfsc hninp `nm B{Klnp. hnhiXbn, BImiw XpdncnpXpw, `qanbnse kIehn[ \mevmenbpw CgPmXnbpw BIminse ]dhbpw \nd, hentbmcp Xpnt]mse \mep tImWpw sIop `qanbntep Cdnhntmcp ]m{Xw hcpXpw Ah Ip. ]s{Xmtk, Fgptp AdppXnpI Fp Hcp i_vZw Dmbn. Imth, aen\tam Aiptam BbsXmpw Rm Hcp\mfpw Xnnntm Fv AXn\p ]s{Xmkv Dcw ]dp. ssZhw ipoIcnXp \o aen\sap hnNmcncpXp Fp Aht\mSp ZqX ]dp. Cs\ aqp {]mhiyw Dmbn; DSs\ ]m{Xw XncnsI BImintep hensSpp. ]t{Xmkv Zi\spdnv NenpsImncnptm sImtseymkv Ab ]pcpjm AhnsS Fn; sImtseymkv F iXm[n]p \ns hon hcpn \nsd {]kwKw tItWw Fp Hcp hnip ZqX\m AcpfmSpmbncnpp Fp ]dp. Hpw kwibnmsX AhtcmSp IqsS t]mI Fp Bmhp Aht\mSp ]dp. Av Ah AhnsS Xmaknv ]ns Znhkw ]t{Xmkv tbmbnse Nne ktlmZcmtcmsSmv AhcpsS IqsS t]mbn. sImtseymkpw IpSpw_hpw A\pbmbnIfpw hnip ]t{Xmkns\ hfsc _lpam\tmsS kzoIcnv {itbmsS Ahs {]kwKw tIp. A\yPmXnmcsd ASp sNpXpw Ah\pambn s]cpamw sNpXpw sblqZ\p \njnw Fnepw Hcp a\pjys\bpw aen\t\m Aipt\m Fp ]dbcpsXp ssZhw F\np ImWnpXncnpp Fpw ssZhnp apJ]an Fpw AhtcmSv ]dp. ]t{Xmkv Imhmb tbip{InkvXphns\ AhcpsS apn kmoIcnv {]kwKnp. ]s{Xmkv {]kvXmhnptm Xt hN\w tI FmhcpsStaepw ]cnipmmhp hp. ]s{Xmkv Ahsc tbip{InkvXphnsd \man kv\m\w Ignnm Iev]np.

sltcmZmcmPmhns ]oT\n tbmlmsd ktlmZc\mb bmtm_ns\ hmsImp sImpIbpw, ]s{Xmkns\ ]nSnp XShnempIbpw sNbvXp. ]s{Xmkns\ XShn kqnp hcptm k` {itbmsS Ahp thn ssZhtmSp {]m\ Ignp t]mp. cm{Xnbn ]s{Xmkv cp Nebm _nsh\mbn cp ]SbmfnIfpsS \Sphn Ddptm s]sp Imhnsd ZqX AhnsS {]Xy\mbn, Adbn Hcp shfnw {]Iminp. Ah ]s{Xmkns\ hnempdp Xn: thKw Fgpt Fp ]dp Ahs\ DWn; DSs\ Ahsd Ne ssIta \np hoWp t]mbn. Ah Hmw Imhepw cmatXpw ISp ]Wn sNp Ccnp hmXn Fn. AXp Ahp kzXsh Xqdp; Ah ]pdndn Hcp sXcphp ISp, DSs\ ZqX Ahs\ hnpt]mbn. ]s{Xmkv kphntijI\mb atmknsd A adnbbpsS hon sNp ]Snpc hmXn apn. AhnsS At\I Hcpanp IqSn {]mnpsImncpp. Ah Xpdtm ]s{Xmkns\ Ip hnkvabnp. sltcmZmhp Ahs\ At\zjnnp ImWmbvIbm Imhmsc hnkvXcnp Ahsc sImphm Iev]np; ]ns ]s{Xmkv sblqZy hnp ssIkcybntep t]mbn AhnsS ]mp.

tbip{InkvXphnsd AsmkvXe\mb ]s{Xmkv s]msmknepw KemXybnepw IsZmIybnepw Bkybnepw _nYp\ybnepw NnXdnmp ]ctZinIfpw, ]pXpXmbn ]cnh\w sNsXpamb blqZm hnizmknIfmb hnipp thnbmWv Hmw teJ\w FgpXnbnpXv. {][m\ambpw aqp eyfmWv teJI\v DmbncpXv. hyn]chpw Bt]nIhpamb Fm ISaIfpw hnizkvXXtbmsS \nlnpXneqsS Ahsc hnip kwkntev \bnpIbpw t{]cnnpIbpw sNpI. AXneqsS Ah kzw kam[m\w DdnpIbpw i{XpfpsS \nIfn\npw A]hmZfn\np c t\SpI. ImSpIġv Ahsc HcppI. hnizmkn atbmSpw ntcmmltmSpw NcnpXn\v Ahsc t{]mmlnnpI. IpdpImew IXbnepw `mcnepw Bbncpnpw, cbpsS {]Xymibn, ]ddnbmmhm\mhm alXztmsS Ah ktmjnm henb ImcWapsv hnip ]t{Xmkv hyampp. ]pcmX\ {]hmNIm apIqn ]d cbpw kznse ZqXm A\zjnm B{KlnXpw CXmWv. tbiphns cns ]cnKW\, a\pjys hosSpns hneaXnm\mhm aqeyw, ktlmZc kvt\lw, ]p\cpoh\ns t{iXbpw AhcpsS Bob Ahbpw, Chsbmw ]t{Xmkv Cu teJ\n ]cmainpp.

hnip iotam ]s{Xmkv Xs cmw teJ\w FgpXnbXv, \psS ssZhnsdbpw cnXmhmb tbip{InkvXphnsdbpw \oXnbm AtmkvtXmemv e`nXpt]mse AtX hnetbdnb hnizmkw e`nv blqZmcn \npw {IkvXphnep hnizmkntep Xncnp hhp thnbmWv. Fm {InkvXob Ir]Ifnepw aptdm\pw, sasSpphm\pw, hnnm\pw, ntcmmlw \Im\pw BWv teJ\nse DZvt_m[\w. Cu k{]hnsb kpKaampXn\pw aptmp sImpt]mIpXn\pw ]t{Xmkv Blzm\w sNpp. cmPmmcpsS cmPmhpw {]`pmcpsS \mY\pw, Imhpw ssZhhpamb tbip{InkvXphns tkh\amWv ]ctamX _lpaXnbntep hgn Fv ]t{Xmkv AtmkvtXme Cu teJ\neqsS Hmnnpp. Ir]bpw kam[m\hpw hnpXv ssZhsbpw tbip{InkvXphnt\bpw Ipdnp AdnhneqsSbmWv. Ir]bpsS {]hn Bcw`nh AXv ]qoIcnpw. Fm Bob A\p{KlfptSbpw Ddh tbip{InkvXphns Znhy inbmWv.

tbmlms teJ\:
hnip tbmlms kphntijntbpw teJ\fptSbpw DSw ]cnKWnptm kvt\lns AtmkvtXme Bbncpp tbmlm. shfnw, Ccpv, kXyw, PohnXw, kvt\lw Fn BhnpXpw hyXncnhpab hmpI teJ\fpsS s]mXphmb tbmlm ssienbmWv; {]tXyInv, "shfnn \SpI', "kXyn BbncnpI', "]nimNn \nv', "temIn \nv', "temIs adnISpI' apXemb ]Z{]tbmK. Hcp hnm\tImins cq]amWv tbmlms cN\IġpXv. tbip{InkvXphns ZrIvkmnbpw D kplrpw BsWv teJI AhImisSppshv BcnI sXfnhpI hyampp. aqp Inepw kvt\lhpw ]nXmhpamWv {]Xn]mZnsSpXv. Abmct\mSp Znhykvt\lnsbpw Zm\[nsbpw knc teJ\fn \apv ImWmw.

tbmlms Hmas teJ\w Xm m]n k`Ifnse Bn Iqnse Fm AwKtfbpw A`nkwt_m[\ sNp Hcp CSb teJ\amWv. Fs^skmknepw Nppap Gjybnse {InkvXym\nIġv DtinnpXmWv CXv. AtmkvtXme Xs Ahkm\ hj Xmaknv sNehgnXv Fs^skmkn Bbncpp. AhnsS shmWv Xs cN\I Fmw \SnbsXv hnizknsSpp. teJ\ns {][m\ hnjbw ssZhhpambp \psS IqmbvabptSbpw cbptSbpw Ddv hnizmknepw kvt\lnepw BWv FpXmWv. aqp kmnIfpsS {]knamb `mKw teJ\nse {]kamb hnhcWamWv. "kmyw \Ip aqpt]: kzn ]nXmhv, hN\w, ]cnipmmhv; Cu aqpt]cpw HmWv. `qanbn kmyw \Ip aqpt] Dv: Bmhpw shhpw chpw; Ch aqpw HmWv.' (1 tbmlm 5:78) hnizmkns cp {][m\ clkysf Atlw ncoIcnpp: {XnXzns \nKqVXbpw, ssZh]p{X\mb tbip{InkvXphns AhXmc clkyhpw.

kXys Adnncnph Fmhcpw kXyn kvt\lnp am\y\mbInbmpw aġpw thnbmWv tbmlm Hcp Aymbw am{Xap Xs cmas teJ\w FgpXnbncnpXv. Cu teJ\w AtmkvtXme\n \np Hcp sNdnb ImbnmWv FgpXnbncnpXv. ]ckv]cw kvt\lnm Ahsc DZvt_m[nnpp. kXyn \Sm\pw Fmhscbpw kvt\lnm\pw sXmbn ]Tnnphsc kqnm\pw Atlw ip]mi sNpp. aX{`mmv Hcp kaqlhpan; Ahsc A`nhmZyw sNcpsXv {]tXyIw FSpp ]dbpp. tbip Hcp amwkccp]asv ]Tnnp Docetic Christology sbbpw m\hmZtbpw [Gnostic Theory] tbmlm hnainpIbpw XmoXv \IpIbpw sNpp. tbip{InkvXp PUn hncnppshv Gp]dbmh hI BsWv Atlw A]e]nv {]Jym]npp.

kXyn kvt\lnp {]nb Kmsbmknp BWv tbmlm apmas teJ\w FgpXnbncnpXv. CXpw Hcp Aymbw am{Xap sNdnb hynKX ImWv. k`bn \nv ]pdmsSpIbpw anjy\dn hncp hnImcw krnpIbpw sNbvX \ny\mb sZta{Xnsbmkv F hynsbpdnmWv In ]cmainpXv. teJ\nse samnep hnjbw BXnYyacymZbpsS {]m[m\yamWv. Cu In ss{IkvXh Iqmbva alXzoIcnpIbpw ]cn]menpIbpw sNpp. ssZhhpambp \psS kpamb _ԯns sXfnhmWv \bpsS ]cnioe\w.

hnip bqZmbpw bqZmbpsS teJ\hpw:
AtmktXme\mb CkvIcntbmmhm hnip bqZm, Xmbn F \manepw AdnbsSpp. Ctlhpw tbiphns IpSpw_ ktlmZc\mbn IcpXsSpp. Ctlw sNdnb bmtm_v olmbpsS ktlmZc Bbncpp. At\nb AtmkvtXmenIv Nv hnip bqZm Xmbntbbpw hnip _temambntbbpw AhcpsS Patron Saint Bbn IcpXn _lpam\npp. kmyamhbpw \ncmiP\Ihpamb \s Imcyġp ayX hlnp ]cnip\mbnmWv Itmenm k` hnip bqZmolmsb hntijnnpXv. blqZm, iacy, CSpanb, kndnb, saskmsmtanb, en_nb FnhnSfn hnip bqZm kphntijw {]kwKnpshmWv ]mccyw. tdma {]hniybmb kndnbmbnse s_bvdqn AtmkvtXme FcnhpImc\mb hnip iotamt\msSmw [ Simon the Zealot ] ckmnXzw hcnp FmWv ]mccyw hnizknpXv. Nn{Xfn ]nSnncnp tImSmen ]etmgpw sIs coXnsb {]XoIsSppp.

]qXnb\nbanse Ahkm\s teJ\amWv bqZmbpsS teJ\w. thZhn]coXnIfn \npw hnizmkXymKn \npw {InkvXob hnizmknIsf ]nncnnpI FXmbncpp teJ\ns Dtiyw. Xs teJ\w FgpXnbtmtgpw ncoIcnncp {InkvXphns D]tZins \nt]s {]Xntcm[nWsapw AtmkvtXmemcpsS hmpI HmWsapw bqZm teJ\n A`ynpp. hnizmkXymKns A\c^ew Atlw kqNnnpp. Imhv Xs P\s CuPn]vXn\nv cnXn\ptijhpw Ahnizmkn AIshsc, DX ]Zhnbn\npw hoWpt]mb ZqXmtcbpw, skmtZmant\bpw tKmtamsdtbbpw innXpt]mse Xs, \innm aSnnspw teJ\n HmsSppp. FtXy]y, Fdn{Xnb k`IfpsS Xncpshgpns `mKamb lmt\mns ]pkvXIn\nv bqZm t\cnv Dcnpp. temIsamSpw \ymbhn[n \Sm Imhv Xs BbncWn\p hnipmcpambn hcpsa lmt\mns {]hN\w DcnsSpp.

shfn]mSp]pkvXIw:
]pXnb\nbantbpw ss__nfntbpw Ahkm\s ]pkvXIamWv AtmkvtXme\pw kphntijI\pamb hnip tbmlm FgpXnb shfn]mSp]pkvXIw. {InkvXy Eschatology (Theology concerned with death, judgement and the final destiny of the soul and humankind) CXv Hcp {][m\ m\w hlnpp. ]gb\nban CXn\q kam\amb IrXn Zm\ntbens ]pkvXIamWv. ]tmkv Zzo]ntev \mSpISs tbmlm Gjybnse Ggp k`IġmWv CXv FgpXnbncnpXv. Xs P\ns hnizmkns ]npWbvpw AhcpsS {]XymibpsS Znimt_m[n\pw thn bpKmyn kw`hnt {][m\ kw`hfpsS {]hN\amWv shfn]mSv ]pkvXIns DSw. a\pjys hnthIns bpnsImv Hcnepw thXncnsSpm Ignbmh, Bcpw Adnbm ssZhns Bgnep Imcy, Fm ssZhns Bmhpw Ah shfnsSpphcpw am{Xw IspXn\m AXns\ shfn]mSv Fp hnfnpp.

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