CHRISTIAN NEWS MAGAZINE FOR KERALA MALAYALEE CHRISTIANS FROM INDIA AROUND THE WORLD
CHRISTIAN EDUCATION - MALAYALAM


HISTORY AND GROWTH OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN EARLY CENTURIES-SERIES 5
BZy \qmpIfnse {InkvXob hnZym`ymkns Ncn{Xhpw hfbpw 5

By Dr. Rajan Mathew B.E., M.E., Ph.D.

ANCIENT RELIGIONS IN EARLY CENTURIES
]pcmX\ aX

]pcmX\ {Kov aX:
]pcmX\ {Kov aX ap ]pcmX\ aXsftmse Xs _lpssZhhnizmk kz`mhapXmbncpp. Hne[nIw ssZhtftbm ssZhoIXItftbm hnizknpItbm Bcm[npItbm sNpXmWv _lpssZhhnizmkw. tZhm XfpsS cmPyn\v kwcWw \Ippshpw i{Xpfn \nv Ahsc kwcnpsapw {KopIm hnizknp. ]pcmX\ {Kop aXn aXhpambn _sSpn `P\ ]ment hnizmk{]amWtfm [mnI hyhItfm Dmbncpn. ]oV\fpw IXIfpw {]bmkfpw Cm PohnXw \bnm Ah tZhmsc {]oXnsSpm {ianp. `qcn`mKw ]pcmX\ aXfpsSbpw kmcmwiw IfpsS ntcmmlambncpp, Cu temInse AmX inIfpambn kpeamb _w \ne\np {]{Inbbmbn AXns\ IWmsSpp. km[mcW Bcm[\meb ]pWyefn Bbncpp Fnepw, an hoSpIfnepw IpSpw_t{Xw Dmbncpp. ]pcmX\ {Kov aXn ]ptcmlnX hw Dmbncpn. km[mcW `P\ Xs ]qPbpw bmKhpw Ifpw Anncpp. kaqlnse Hcp {]tXyI hn`mKns]h am{Xsa A\zjIv `mhn {]hNnphcmbn \Snv {]hnncppp [Sooth Sayers] . kzbw ipoIcWn\pw At]Iġpambn bmKfpw XymKfpw ImWnIfpw hmKvZm\w sNbvXncpp. bmKw \SmsX tZhXtbmSv At]npXv DNnXambncpn.

sl\nkvnv tdma ImeLnse aXNnI tlmadns CXnlmksf ASnm\amnbpXmWv. tlmadnv NnI {Kov hnZym`ymkw, kwkvImcw, aXw FnhbpsS hnImkn hfscb[nIw kzm[o\w sNepn. tlmadnv NnI IpSpX atXXcambncppshnepw {Kop P\XbpsS aX]cX m]npXn AXn\v henb m\apmbncpp. HfnnIvkn {]thi\w t\Snb {Kop hocm tZhmcpsS ]Zhnbntev Dbsp. \mbIcmbn amdnb Imkv, s]mfIvkv, UtbmkvIpcn [Castor, Pollux, Dioscuri] XpSnbh IS bm{XnsS XfpsS kwcIcmbn \mhnInSbn {]NpcX t\Snbncpp. [Acts 28:11]

{Kop ssZhsf a\pjycp]n hntijnncpXv, {]mbn\v AXoX, AaXy, GXp cq]hpw {]m]nm Ignhh, GXp am[yanepw XpfpIbdm Ignhph, imcocnI AkvXnXzw Cmh apXemb khntijXItfmSp IqSnbmbncpp. Nne tZhm `qanbn \nesImpsapw aph BImin hknppshpw hnizknsSpp. (1 sImcn. 8:5) ]pcmX\ {Kokn hfsc {]Nmcap tZhXIfmbncpp AtY\ AYhm knbqkv. AtY\ m\ns tZhXbmbncpp. Ah kobqkns aIfmbncpp.

{Kov atXmhfn `qcn`mKhpw ImjnI N{Is ASnm\amnbpXmbncpp. hnfIġpw IpImenIġpw ^e`qbnjvTX \Inb tZhXIfpsS _lpam\mw BtLmj \Sn. {]hN\w, sshZyw, kwKoXw, IhnX, IpImenIfptSbpw BnIqnsbpw ]cn]me\w apXembhIfn kwcWw \Inbncp Hfny tZhmcn {][m\s Hcmfmbncpp Atmtfm. {Kov P\XbpsS `qcn]hpw aX]camb BNmcfn {]Xn_Xbphcmbncpp.

]pcmX\ tdma aX:
]pcmX\ tdmamm XfpsS ssZhġv ssZ\wZn\ PohnXn henb kzm[o\apsv hnizknp. {Kov ]pcmW ssZhfn \nv hyXykvXambn, tdmamv Bob cq]n ssZhfpmbncpp. AhcpsS `uXnIkn\pw ]cn{ian\pw ta B[n]Xyap At\Iw Bmfn Ah hnizknp. kzw BoI ssZh Dmbncpnpw, tdmamm ap {]tZifn\nv, {]tXyInv {Kokn\np A\yssZhsf CdpaXn sNbvXv AhcpsS Xtiob ssZhfpambn _sSpn. km{amPyw hym]ntXmsS, CuPn]vXn \npw {_n\n \npw P\nbn \npw t]jybn \npw IqSpX ssZhsf Ah CdpaXnsNbvXp.

{Kov aXn \nv hyXykvXambn, tdma aXw IqSpX kwLSnXambncpp. \nbpcmb ]ptcmlnXm BNmcfpw A\pjvTm\fpw \Sn. B{KlnhcpsS t\n\pw AkpJIcamb Imcyfpw kw`hfpw HgnhmpXn\pw bmK hmKvZm\w sNbvXv Anncpp. apIqn Xmdmnb hnip {K٧fn \nv A\pjvTm\fnepw BNmcfnepw ]mcmbWw sNbvXncpp. NSpI XpSw apX Ahkm\w hsc IrXyambXpw hniZambXpamb IpdnSn D]tbmKnv \nba]cambpw IrXyambpw icnbmbncnWsaXv \nambncpp. AXn\nSbn Fsnepw sXpI kw`hnm BNmcacymZ{]Imcw {]{Inb ]qambpw IrXyXtbmsS Bhnp. tdmammv iIp\n hnizmkw DmbncpXn\m ]ptcmlnXm Ikabv Hcp aqSp]Sw sImvv apJw aqSnbncpp. tdma ImeLnse aXns asmcp {][m\ BIjWw N{IhnbpsS ssZhXzambncpp.

CuPn]vjy aX:
CuPn]vjy tZhm AhcpsS {Kop, tdma FXn`mKfn \nv Xptemw hyXykvXambncpp, ImcWw CuPn]vjy tZhXIfn `qcn`mKhpw a\pjyicochpw arKfpsS Xebpw Asn Xncnpw Bbncpp. sl\nI temIn {]Nmcw t\Sn BZcns Ing tZhotZhmcn BZytXmWv CuPn]vjy tZhXI. CuPn]vjy ]mccyn sshhnyam cmbncn]cw tZhcq] Dmbncpp. \nch[n hjfmbn CuPn]vjy aXn \ne\nncp Nne s]mXp tZhXIfmbncpp sFknkv, Hkncnkv, kcm]nkv [Isis, Osiris, Sarapis] Fnh. Bbncn A[nIw hj AXnPohn sFknkv kvt\lw, a{w, amXrXzw, IpnI, sshZyw, kam[m\w FnhbpsS tZhX Bbncpp. ZmXyw ktmj{]Zamm BfpI Cu tZhXsb Bcm[nmdpmbncpp. sFknkns\ hnhmlw Ign {]IrXnbptSbpw IrjnbptSbpw tZh\mbncpp Hkncnkv [Osiris]. ]noSv Dbp h kcm]nkv [Sarapis] Hkncnkntbpw B]nkntbpw kwtbmP\amWv.

acn At\I acWm\c PohnXn\v AlcmsWpw arXicocw kwcnsm am{Xsa Bmhn\v \ne\nm Ignbp Fpw CuPn]vpIm hnizknncpp. arXtZlw tISpIqSmsX kqnpXn\mbn Fw_manpw an^ntj\pw [Embalming and Mummification] \Sn. A\p_nkns A\p{KltmsS A\p_nkv ]ptcmlnXmcmWv an^ntj \SnbncpXv cmPmhns\ ssZhoI\mbn IWmnbncpXn\m ^dthms arXtZl ]ncanUpIfn \mbn kwcnsp. tISmb icocw Bmhv Xncndnbnspw ]p\Pn\p Ahkcw \sSppsapw Ah hnizknp.

kndnbbnse aX:
]pcmX\ kndnbbnse {][m\ ssZhambncpp, ss__nfn ]eXhW ]cmainnp _m. kndnbbnse Hmtcm ]Wnepw _men\pw Ahs `mcybvpw t{X Dmbncpp. _m, BImifn Xmaknncp ^e`qbnjvTXbpsS sZhambncpXpsImv, I\mtZip\nph apX ImjnIhrnbn Gsncp ^n\ojym hsc _mens Bcm[Icmbncpp. aX]cambn kqcyt\mSpw N{t\mSpw _sncp _m AhcpsS tZins A[n]\mbncpp. _mens Bcm[\ ]Xn\memw \qmp hsc \ne\nncpp. ss__nfn "s^enkvXy\mb ssZhw' Fp hntijnn ZmtKms aI\mbn _m IWmsSpp. {]tXyInv AjvtZmZv \Kcn, It ]Xn, Genbm {]hNI\mWv, Blm_v cmPmhns, _mens inbnep hnizmks A]am\nXv.

]pcmX\ kndnbbnse Ghpw {]ikvXamb Hcp ssZhambncpp _mens Iqmbvabns] AKnkv ( [Atargatis]). sasabnUvtZhn [Mermaid-goddess] FmWv Ah AdnbsncpXv. kndnbbn \nv Cu tZhntbmSp Bcm[\ {Kokntepw AXn\pw ]Snmtdmpw hym]np. ^e`qbnjvTnXbpsS tZhXbmbncpp Ah. tZhXbptStbm tZhttbm XomS\n\p t]mIph Xe ap\w sNbvIbpw ]pcnIw hSnbpw BSpIsf _enbnpIbpw sNpambncpp.

]pcmX\ t]jy aXw:
{][m\s ]pXnb aX BibfpsS Hcp {]mNo\ DdhnSambn t]jysb Xncndnbpp. tdma km{amPyn {]Nmcnemb {][m\ t]jy tZh an{Xbmbncpp. an{Xsb Bcm[nncp Bcym Cu tZhs\ Cybntepw Cdm\ntepw sImpt]mhpIbpmbn. ]mdItm \ocpdhItm kao]amWv an{X ktX nXn sNpXv. Cy thZ kwkvImcn an{X, hcpW\pambn ASp _w ]penbncpp. Atls BZnXymcn Hcph\mbpw, kXykXbptSbpw kulrZntbpw IcmdpIfptSbpw tZh\mbpw IcpXsp. B.C. Hmw \qmp apX A.D. Amw \qmp hsc bh\tdma tZh\mb an{Xmkv t]jy an{Xbpambpw av t]jy Bcm[\Ifpambpw IqSntv HSphn an{Xbnkw, tdma ssk\yns A\utZymKnI Bcm[\bmbn amdn.

]pcmX\ blqZaXw:
temInse Ghpw ]pcmX\amb aX]mccyfn Hpw, Cpw BNcnsSpXpamb aXamWv PqXaXw. GIssZhs am{Xw Bcm[npXpw hn{Klmcm[\sb ]qambn XnfbpXpw Bb BZy GIssZhhnizmkamWv AXv. blqZaXns knmfpw Ncn{Xhpw {InkvXpaXns Ncn{X]camb ASndbmWv. F{_mb ss__nfns BZy Ap ]pkvXIfmb tXmd blqZaXn bn{kmtb a ]npStc \nch[n \nba hyampp. F{_mb ss__nfns hnjbw, ssZhhpambp AhcpsS _ԯns hnhcWamWv. Imens Bcw`w apX cmw Bebw ]WnbpXphscbp AhcpsS Ncn{Xn CXv {]Xn^enpp. aX Ncn{Xw A\pkcnv, blqZm bnkvlmneqsSbpw bmtm_neqsSbpw t]{Snbmv [Patriarch] Bb A{_lmans kXnIfmWv. tamibpsS ktlmZc\mb Altcms ]nKmanI C{kmtb kaqln Hcp ]ptcmlnXhambncnWsav ssZhw \nbnp. `qcn`mKw PqXmcpw {]tXyInv sl\nIv ImeLw apX, XfpsS ssZhw GIssZhamspw AXn\m FmhcptSbpw ssZhamsWpw kmh{XnI kXy tXmdbneqsS shfnsSppshpw hnizknp.

blqZaXw A\pkcnv ssZhw ki\pw kh\pw BWv. ssZhns bYm hmpI Xs {]hmNIm apJmcw a\pjyhn\v shfnsSpn. Ahcn apJy {]hmNI tami Bbncpp. hmpIfpsSbpw {]hrnIfpsSbpw CS\nem CmsX a\pjyv ]m]ġv {]mbnw sNm Ignbpsav blqZaXw hnizknpp. blqZ Ncn{XnepS\ofw blqZm AhcpsS bYm PtZip\npw Ah Xmaknncp {]tZifn\npw ]e XhW \mSpISsp. blqZm hnhn[ cmPyfn ]e ImeLfnembn hym]np InSncpsnepw Ah F{_mb `mjsb ]cn]menpIbpw Ii\amb aX]camb hf ]npScpIbpw sNbvXp. AXpsImv, ]ekvXo\nse blqZaXhpw Ubkvt]md PqUmbnkhpw [Diaspora Judaism] Xn `qanimkv{X]camb sshhn[yfmsX ap `namb hyXymkan. {InkvXpaXw Dhn blqZ ]mew CXn\Iw slss\kv sNsncpp.

blqZ kaqlns atXXc Ncn{Xhpw PqXaXns Ncn{Xhpw Xn hyamb thXncnhv C. aXw AXns 4000 hjntesd AdnbsSp Ncn{Xn kaqlhpambn ]ckv]cw _sncnpp. iu cmPmhv Hcp C{kmtb cmPyw m]np; ]noSv AXv ZmhoZv cmPmhntbpw itemtam cmPmhntbpw Iogn ]npSpp. ZmhoZp cmPmhns ImemWv sbdpiteans\ cmPyns Xem\w BnbXv. itemtam cmPmhv tbcpitew \Kcn BZys C{kmtb tZhmebw ]WnXp. itemtam\ptijw cmPyw, hSv C{ktb cmPyw, sXv blqZcmPyw, Cs\ cmbn hn`Pnsp. B.C. Fmw \qmn Akodnb `cWm[nImcn jmat\k Ama C{ktb cmPyw IogSn. blqZmsc km{amPynse Dze kwkvImcfntev BIjnpIbpw ]v \s tKm{X Fv AdnbsSpIbpw sNbvXp. B.C. Bdmw \qmn _m_ntemWnb ssk\yw IogSpXphsc blqZcmPyw Hcp kzX{ cmPyambn \ne\np. itemtam ]WnX BZys tZhmebw Ah \innp. htcWycpw DXcpw Bb blqZmcn ]ecpw _m_ntemWnbbntev {]hmknXcmIm \n_nXcmbn. Cu A[n\nthins Fgp]Xv hjġptijw t]jym _m_ntemWnb ]nSnSn. (2 cmPmm 24-25) t]jy N{Ihnbmb tImscins (sskdkv) `cWImev _m_ntemWnb {]hmknse blqZmcpsS Hcp `mKhpw Akodnb {]hmknIfpw kzw \mntep aSphm A\phZnp. (2 cmPmm 17) As\ Ah tbcpitean cmas ]pXnb tZhmebw ]WnXp. aX]camb BNmc tbcpitean ]p\cmcw`np. (2 Zn\. 36: 22,-23 F{km 1:1-4) Fncpmepw, blqZmcn ]ecpw _m_ntemWnbmbnXs Xmaknm Xocpam\np. Nne CuPn]vXntep IpSntbdnmp. F{km \_nbpsS Imev, blqZcpsS ssZhnI kaqlw F{kmbpsS t\XrXzn \ymb{]amWw kzbw [ym\nm ]Tnp, AXn\ptijw Ah ]pcmX\ temInse kIe cmPyfpsSbpw D]tZmmcmbnmWv kmnbmIpXv. {]hmknIġnSbn kn\tKmKpIfn Aym]Icmbn imkv{Xnam [Scribe]F Hcp hn`mKapmbn.

B.C. 332 alm\mb AeIvkm ]ekvXo ssIhisSpn. AeIvkmdns\ alm]ptcmlnX\mb PpUqh kzmKXw sNbvXXmbn blqZ Ncn{XImc\mb tPmk^kv tcJsSpnbncnpp. Atlns hcthmsS ]ekvXo\nse hmWnPyw, km, kmlnXyw FnhbpsS `mj F{_mb `mjbn \npw {Kov `mjbntep amdn. CuPn]vnse Hcp ]pXnb \Kcamb AeIvkm{nbbn [mcmfw PqXmcpmbncpp. kndnbbpw asmcp {][m\ hmWnPy tI{ambn amdn, {]tXyInpw AtymJy Hcp {][m\ hym]mc tI{ambn.

A.D. 70 tdmamm cmw tZhmebw \inn ImeLn aqv blqZ aX Zmi\nI hn`mKfpmbncppshv Ncn{XImc\mb ^vtfhnbkv tPmko^kv "blqZ ]ucmWnIXbpw blqZ bphpw' F Atlns IrXnIfn hnhcnppv. [Jewish Antiquities and Jewish Wars by Flavius Josephus] ]coim, kZqIy, Fkkv Fnh. [Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes] ]coim {]mYanIambn ayh IpSpw_fn \nphcmbncpp. tamssiI \ymb{]amWw kw_np Ah XovWXbphcmbncpp. Fm kZqIy s]mXpsh blqZ{]`pmcn kcmbncpp; Ah hfsc ktmjtmsS slen\nkw kzoIcnncpp. hnizmkns ASnm\n ]coimcpw kZqIycpw Xnep {][m\ Xw, acnhcn\np ]p\cpm\nepw amemJamcptSbpw, ssZhZqXmcptSbpw, `qXfptSbpw t]mep BPohnIfpsS AkvXnXznepw ]coim hnizknpshXmWv. kZqIy AXv hnizknncpn. aqmas hn`mKamb Fkkv ITn\amb ASw \Snp. ]pXnb \nban BZy cp hn`mKsf ]cmainnpv, Fm ]gb\nban Bcpw ]cmainsnn. cp Iqcpw {InkvXphns ip{iqjbpsS Imev, {InkvXphns\ FXnpIbpw, {InkvXphn\m A]e]nsSpIbpw hn[nsSpIbpw sNbvXncpp. Imhns aptmSnbmb kv\m]Itbmlm AWen Ipp Fp hnfnv ITn\amb `mjbn ]coimsc A]e]nncpp. Imhmb tbip{InkvXphns\ ]nSnIqSm\pw ]oVnnm\pw Ipcnintephm\pap ]Xn XmdmnbXv ]coimcpsS _pnbnembncpp.

SEARCH: St. Peter, St. Paul, Apostles, Feast, Fr. T.J. Joshua, Orthodox Faith, Lent, Christian, Orthodox, Marthoma, Catholic, Gregorios, God, Kerala, Malayalam, Catholicos, Bible, Testamanet, Article, Parumala, Maramon, Basalios, Osthathios, Barnabas, Sunday, Memorial, Qurbana, Mass, Sacrament, Martyrs, Lord, Jesus, Christ, Roman, Jacobite, Antioch, Perunal, Feast, Blessing, Sabbath, Abraham, Jerusalem, Bethelhem, Nazareth, Jordan, Baptist, Family, Gospel, Epistle, Priest, Bishop, Syriac, Church, Cross, Sleeba, Liturgy, Deacon, Convention, Holy, Gregorios, Travalogue

CHRISTIAN EDUCATION ARTICLES MALAYALAM

MORE ARTICLES OF THE SAME AUTHOR

Back Previous Chapter Home Next Chapter Top
EmailEmail this Link to a Friend FeedbackSend Your Feedback
INDIAN CHRISTIAN WEB DIRECTORY [LINKS]
[ ECUMENICAL ] [ ORTHODOX ] [ MARTHOMA ] [ JACOBITE ] [ CATHOLIC ] [ CSI ] [ ORGANIZATIONS ] [ NEWS ] [ MALAYALAM ]
THE CHRISTIAN
LIGHT OF LIFE