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HISTORY AND GROWTH OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN EARLY CENTURIES-SERIES 5
BZy \qmpIfnse {InkvXob hnZym`ymkns Ncn{Xhpw hfbpw 5

By Dr. Rajan Mathew B.E., M.E., Ph.D.

ANCIENT RELIGIONS IN EARLY CENTURIES
]pcmX\ aX

]pcmX\ {Kov aX:
]pcmX\ {Kov aX ap ]pcmX\ aXsftmse Xs _lpssZhhnizmk kz`mhapXmbncpp. Hne[nIw ssZhtftbm ssZhoIXItftbm hnizknpItbm Bcm[npItbm sNpXmWv _lpssZhhnizmkw. tZhm XfpsS cmPyn\v kwcWw \Ippshpw i{Xpfn \nv Ahsc kwcnpsapw {KopIm hnizknp. ]pcmX\ {Kop aXn aXhpambn _sSpn `P\ ]ment hnizmk{]amWtfm [mnI hyhItfm Dmbncpn. ]oV\fpw IXIfpw {]bmkfpw Cm PohnXw \bnm Ah tZhmsc {]oXnsSpm {ianp. `qcn`mKw ]pcmX\ aXfpsSbpw kmcmwiw IfpsS ntcmmlambncpp, Cu temInse AmX inIfpambn kpeamb _w \ne\np {]{Inbbmbn AXns\ IWmsSpp. km[mcW Bcm[\meb ]pWyefn Bbncpp Fnepw, an hoSpIfnepw IpSpw_t{Xw Dmbncpp. ]pcmX\ {Kov aXn ]ptcmlnX hw Dmbncpn. km[mcW `P\ Xs ]qPbpw bmKhpw Ifpw Anncpp. kaqlnse Hcp {]tXyI hn`mKns]h am{Xsa A\zjIv `mhn {]hNnphcmbn \Snv {]hnncppp [Sooth Sayers] . kzbw ipoIcWn\pw At]Iġpambn bmKfpw XymKfpw ImWnIfpw hmKvZm\w sNbvXncpp. bmKw \SmsX tZhXtbmSv At]npXv DNnXambncpn.

sl\nkvnv tdma ImeLnse aXNnI tlmadns CXnlmksf ASnm\amnbpXmWv. tlmadnv NnI {Kov hnZym`ymkw, kwkvImcw, aXw FnhbpsS hnImkn hfscb[nIw kzm[o\w sNepn. tlmadnv NnI IpSpX atXXcambncppshnepw {Kop P\XbpsS aX]cX m]npXn AXn\v henb m\apmbncpp. HfnnIvkn {]thi\w t\Snb {Kop hocm tZhmcpsS ]Zhnbntev Dbsp. \mbIcmbn amdnb Imkv, s]mfIvkv, UtbmkvIpcn [Castor, Pollux, Dioscuri] XpSnbh IS bm{XnsS XfpsS kwcIcmbn \mhnInSbn {]NpcX t\Snbncpp. [Acts 28:11]

{Kop ssZhsf a\pjycp]n hntijnncpXv, {]mbn\v AXoX, AaXy, GXp cq]hpw {]m]nm Ignhh, GXp am[yanepw XpfpIbdm Ignhph, imcocnI AkvXnXzw Cmh apXemb khntijXItfmSp IqSnbmbncpp. Nne tZhm `qanbn \nesImpsapw aph BImin hknppshpw hnizknsSpp. (1 sImcn. 8:5) ]pcmX\ {Kokn hfsc {]Nmcap tZhXIfmbncpp AtY\ AYhm knbqkv. AtY\ m\ns tZhXbmbncpp. Ah kobqkns aIfmbncpp.

{Kov atXmhfn `qcn`mKhpw ImjnI N{Is ASnm\amnbpXmbncpp. hnfIġpw IpImenIġpw ^e`qbnjvTX \Inb tZhXIfpsS _lpam\mw BtLmj \Sn. {]hN\w, sshZyw, kwKoXw, IhnX, IpImenIfptSbpw BnIqnsbpw ]cn]me\w apXembhIfn kwcWw \Inbncp Hfny tZhmcn {][m\s Hcmfmbncpp Atmtfm. {Kov P\XbpsS `qcn]hpw aX]camb BNmcfn {]Xn_Xbphcmbncpp.

]pcmX\ tdma aX:
]pcmX\ tdmamm XfpsS ssZhġv ssZ\wZn\ PohnXn henb kzm[o\apsv hnizknp. {Kov ]pcmW ssZhfn \nv hyXykvXambn, tdmamv Bob cq]n ssZhfpmbncpp. AhcpsS `uXnIkn\pw ]cn{ian\pw ta B[n]Xyap At\Iw Bmfn Ah hnizknp. kzw BoI ssZh Dmbncpnpw, tdmamm ap {]tZifn\nv, {]tXyInv {Kokn\np A\yssZhsf CdpaXn sNbvXv AhcpsS Xtiob ssZhfpambn _sSpn. km{amPyw hym]ntXmsS, CuPn]vXn \npw {_n\n \npw P\nbn \npw t]jybn \npw IqSpX ssZhsf Ah CdpaXnsNbvXp.

{Kov aXn \nv hyXykvXambn, tdma aXw IqSpX kwLSnXambncpp. \nbpcmb ]ptcmlnXm BNmcfpw A\pjvTm\fpw \Sn. B{KlnhcpsS t\n\pw AkpJIcamb Imcyfpw kw`hfpw HgnhmpXn\pw bmK hmKvZm\w sNbvXv Anncpp. apIqn Xmdmnb hnip {K٧fn \nv A\pjvTm\fnepw BNmcfnepw ]mcmbWw sNbvXncpp. NSpI XpSw apX Ahkm\w hsc IrXyambXpw hniZambXpamb IpdnSn D]tbmKnv \nba]cambpw IrXyambpw icnbmbncnWsaXv \nambncpp. AXn\nSbn Fsnepw sXpI kw`hnm BNmcacymZ{]Imcw {]{Inb ]qambpw IrXyXtbmsS Bhnp. tdmammv iIp\n hnizmkw DmbncpXn\m ]ptcmlnXm Ikabv Hcp aqSp]Sw sImvvapJw aqSnbncpp. tdma ImeLnse aXns asmcp {][m\ BIjWw N{IhnbpsS ssZhXzambncpp.

CuPn]vjy aX:
CuPn]vjy tZhm AhcpsS {Kop, tdma FXn`mKfn \nv Xptemw hyXykvXambncpp, ImcWw CuPn]vjy tZhXIfn `qcn`mKhpw a\pjyicochpw arKfpsS Xebpw Asn Xncnpw Bbncpp. sl\nI temIn {]Nmcw t\Sn BZcns Ing tZhotZhmcn BZytXmWv CuPn]vjy tZhXI. CuPn]vjy ]mccyn sshhnyam cmbncn]cw tZhcq] Dmbncpp. \nch[n hjfmbn CuPn]vjy aXn \ne\nncp Nne s]mXp tZhXIfmbncpp sFknkv, Hkncnkv, kcm]nkv [Isis, Osiris, Sarapis] Fnh. Bbncn A[nIw hj AXnPohn sFknkv kvt\lw, a{w, amXrXzw, IpnI, sshZyw, kam[m\w FnhbpsS tZhX Bbncpp. ZmXyw ktmj{]Zamm BfpI Cu tZhXsb Bcm[nmdpmbncpp. sFknkns\ hnhmlw Ign {]IrXnbptSbpw IrjnbptSbpw tZh\mbncpp Hkncnkv [Osiris]. ]noSv Dbp h kcm]nkv [Sarapis] Hkncnkntbpw B]nkntbpw kwtbmP\amWv.

acn At\I acWm\c PohnXn\v AlcmsWpw arXicocw kwcnsm am{Xsa Bmhn\v \ne\nm Ignbp Fpw CuPn]vpIm hnizknncpp. arXtZlw tISpIqSmsX kqnpXn\mbn Fw_manpw an^ntj\pw [Embalming and Mummification] \Sn. A\p_nkns A\p{KltmsS A\p_nkv ]ptcmlnXmcmWv an^ntj \SnbncpXv cmPmhns\ ssZhoI\mbn IWmnbncpXn\m ^dthms arXtZl ]ncanUpIfn \mbn kwcnsp. tISmb icocw Bmhv Xncndnbnspw ]p\Pn\p Ahkcw \sSppsapw Ah hnizknp.

kndnbbnse aX:
]pcmX\ kndnbbnse {][m\ ssZhambncpp, ss__nfn ]eXhW ]cmainnp _m. kndnbbnse Hmtcm ]Wnepw _men\pw Ahs `mcybvpw t{X Dmbncpp. _m, BImifn Xmaknncp ^e`qbnjvTXbpsS sZhambncpXpsImv, I\mtZip\nph apX ImjnIhrnbn Gsncp ^n\ojym hsc _mens Bcm[Icmbncpp. aX]cambn kqcyt\mSpw N{t\mSpw _sncp _m AhcpsS tZins A[n]\mbncpp. _mens Bcm[\ ]Xn\memw \qmp hsc \ne\nncpp. ss__nfn "s^enkvXy\mb ssZhw' Fp hntijnn ZmtKms aI\mbn _m IWmsSpp. {]tXyInv AjvtZmZv \Kcn, It ]Xn, Genbm {]hNI\mWv, Blm_v cmPmhns, _mens inbnep hnizmks A]am\nXv.

]pcmX\ kndnbbnse Ghpw {]ikvXamb Hcp ssZhambncpp _mens Iqmbvabns] AKnkv ( [Atargatis]). sasabnUvtZhn [Mermaid-goddess] FmWv Ah AdnbsncpXv. kndnbbn \nv Cu tZhntbmSp Bcm[\ {Kokntepw AXn\pw ]Snmtdmpw hym]np. ^e`qbnjvTnXbpsS tZhXbmbncpp Ah. tZhXbptStbm tZhttbm XomS\n\p t]mIph Xe ap\w sNbvIbpw ]pcnIw hSnbpw BSpIsf _enbnpIbpw sNpambncpp.

]pcmX\ t]jy aXw:
{][m\s ]pXnb aX BibfpsS Hcp {]mNo\ DdhnSambn t]jysb Xncndnbpp. tdma km{amPyn {]Nmcnemb {][m\ t]jy tZh an{Xbmbncpp. an{Xsb Bcm[nncp Bcym Cu tZhs\ Cybntepw Cdm\ntepw sImpt]mhpIbpmbn. ]mdItm \ocpdhItm kao]amWv an{X ktX nXn sNpXv. Cy thZ kwkvImcn an{X, hcpW\pambn ASp _w ]penbncpp. Atls BZnXymcn Hcph\mbpw, kXykXbptSbpw kulrZntbpw IcmdpIfptSbpw tZh\mbpw IcpXsp. B.C. Hmw \qmp apX A.D. Amw \qmp hsc bh\tdma tZh\mb an{Xmkv t]jy an{Xbpambpw av t]jy Bcm[\Ifpambpw IqSntv HSphn an{Xbnkw, tdma ssk\yns A\utZymKnI Bcm[\bmbn amdn.

]pcmX\ blqZaXw:
temInse Ghpw ]pcmX\amb aX]mccyfn Hpw, Cpw BNcnsSpXpamb aXamWv PqXaXw. GIssZhs am{Xw Bcm[npXpw hn{Klmcm[\sb ]qambn XnfbpXpw Bb BZy GIssZhhnizmkamWv AXv. blqZaXns knmfpw Ncn{Xhpw {InkvXpaXns Ncn{X]camb ASndbmWv. F{_mb ss__nfns BZy Ap ]pkvXIfmb tXmd blqZaXn bn{kmtb a ]npStc \nch[n \nba hyampp. F{_mb ss__nfns hnjbw, ssZhhpambp AhcpsS _ԯns hnhcWamWv. Imens Bcw`w apX cmw Bebw ]WnbpXphscbp AhcpsS Ncn{Xn CXv {]Xn^enpp. aX Ncn{Xw A\pkcnv, blqZm bnkvlmneqsSbpw bmtm_neqsSbpw t]{Snbmv [Patriarch] Bb A{_lmans kXnIfmWv. tamibpsS ktlmZc\mb Altcms ]nKmanI C{kmtb kaqln Hcp ]ptcmlnXhambncnWsav ssZhw \nbnp. `qcn`mKw PqXmcpw {]tXyInv sl\nIv ImeLw apX, XfpsS ssZhw GIssZhamspw AXn\m FmhcptSbpw ssZhamsWpw kmh{XnI kXy tXmdbneqsS shfnsSppshpw hnizknp.

blqZaXw A\pkcnv ssZhw ki\pw kh\pw BWv. ssZhns bYm hmpI Xs {]hmNIm apJmcw a\pjyhn\v shfnsSpn. Ahcn apJy {]hmNI tami Bbncpp. hmpIfpsSbpw {]hrnIfpsSbpw CS\nem CmsX a\pjyv ]m]ġv {]mbnw sNm Ignbpsav blqZaXw hnizknpp. blqZ Ncn{XnepS\ofw blqZm AhcpsS bYm PtZip\npw Ah Xmaknncp {]tZifn\npw ]e XhW \mSpISsp. blqZm hnhn[ cmPyfn ]e ImeLfnembn hym]np InSncpsnepw Ah F{_mb `mjsb ]cn]menpIbpw Ii\amb aX]camb hf ]npScpIbpw sNbvXp. AXpsImv, ]ekvXo\nse blqZaXhpw Ubkvt]md PqUmbnkhpw [Diaspora Judaism] Xn `qanimkv{X]camb sshhn[yfmsX ap `namb hyXymkan. {InkvXpaXw Dhn blqZ ]mew CXn\Iw slss\kv sNsncpp.

blqZ kaqlns atXXc Ncn{Xhpw PqXaXns Ncn{Xhpw Xn hyamb thXncnhv C. aXw AXns 4000 hjntesd AdnbsSp Ncn{Xn kaqlhpambn ]ckv]cw _sncnpp. iu cmPmhv Hcp C{kmtb cmPyw m]np; ]noSv AXv ZmhoZv cmPmhntbpw itemtam cmPmhtbpw Iogn ]npSpp. ZmhoZp cmPmhns ImemWv sbdpiteans\ cmPyns Xem\w BnbXv. itemtam cmPmhv tbcpitew \Kcn BZys C{kmtb tZhmebw ]WnXp. itemtam\ptijw cmPyw, hSv C{ktb cmPyw, sXv blqZcmPyw, Cs\ cmbn hn`Pnsp. B.C. Fmw \qmn Akodnb `cWm[nImcn jmat\k Ama C{ktb cmPyw IogSn. blqZmsc km{amPynse Dze kwkvImcfntev BIjnpIbpw ]v \s tKm{X Fv AdnbsSpIbpw sNbvXp. B.C. Bdmw \qmn _m_ntemWnb ssk\yw IogSpXphsc blqZcmPyw Hcp kzX{ cmPyambn \ne\np. itemtam ]WnX BZys tZhmebw Ah \innp. htcWycpw DXcpw Bb blqZmcn ]ecpw _m_ntemWnbbntev {]hmknXcmIm \n_nXcmbn. Cu A[n\nthins Fgp]Xv hjġptijw t]jym _m_ntemWnb ]nSnSn. (2 cmPmm 24-25) t]jy N{Ihnbmb tImscins (sskdkv) `cWImev _m_ntemWnb {]hmknse blqZmcpsS Hcp `mKhpw Akodnb {]hmknIfpw kzw \mntep aSphm A\phZnp. (2 cmPmm 17) As\ Ah tbcpitean cmas ]pXnb tZhmebw ]WnXp. aX]camb BNmc tbcpitean ]p\cmcw`np. (2 Zn\. 36: 22,-23 F{km 1:1-4) Fncpmepw, blqZmcn ]ecpw _m_ntemWnbmbnXs Xmaknm Xocpam\np. Nne CuPn]vXntep IpSntbdnmp. F{km \_nbpsS Imev, blqZcpsS ssZhnI kaqlw F{kmbpsS t\XrXzn \ymb{]amWw kzbw [ym\nm ]Tnp, AXn\ptijw Ah ]pcmX\ temInse kIe cmPyfpsSbpw D]tZmmcmbnmWv kmnbmIpXv. {]hmknIġnSbn kn\tKmKpIfn Aym]Icmbn imkv{Xnam [Scribe]F Hcp hn`mKapmbn.

B.C. 332 alm\mb AeIvkm ]ekvXo ssIhisSpn. AeIvkmdns\ alm]ptcmlnX\mb PpUqh kzmKXw sNbvXXmbn blqZ Ncn{XImc\mb tPmk^kv tcJsSpnbncnpp. Atlns hcthmsS ]ekvXo\nse hmWnPyw, km, kmlnXyw FnhbpsS `mj F{_mb `mjbn \npw {Kov `mjbntep amdn. CuPn]vnse Hcp ]pXnb \Kcamb AeIvkm{nbbn [mcmfw PqXmcpmbncpp. kndnbbpw asmcp {][m\ hmWnPy tI{ambn amdn, {]tXyInpw AtymJy Hcp {][m\ hym]mc tI{ambn.

A.D. 70 tdmamm cmw tZhmebw \inn ImeLn aqv blqZ aX Zmi\nI hn`mKfpmbncppshv Ncn{XImc\mb ^vtfhnbkv tPmko^kv "blqZ ]ucmWnIXbpw blqZ bphpw' F Atlns IrXnIfn hnhcnppv. [Jewish Antiquities and Jewish Wars by Flavius Josephus] ]coim, kZqIy, Fkkv Fnh. [Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes] ]coim {]mYanIambn ayh IpSpw_fn \nphcmbncpp. tamssiI \ymb{]amWw kw_np Ah XovWXbphcmbncpp. Fm kZqIy s]mXpsh blqZ{]`pmcn kcmbncpp; Ah hfsc ktmjtmsS slen\nkw kzoIcnncpp. hnizmkns ASnm\n ]coimcpw kZqIycpw Xnep {][m\ Xw, acnhcn\np ]p\cpm\nepw amemJamcptSbpw, ssZhZqXmcptSbpw, `qXfptSbpw t]mep BPohnIfpsS AkvXnXznepw ]coim hnizknpshXmWv. kZqIy AXv hnizknncpn. aqmas hn`mKamb Fkkv ITn\amb ASw \Snp. ]pXnb \nban BZy cp hn`mKsf ]cmainnpv, Fm ]gb\nban Bcpw ]cmainsnn. cp Iqcpw {InkvXphns ip{iqjbpsS Imev, {InkvXphns\ FXnpIbpw, {InkvXphn\m A]e]nsSpIbpw hn[nsSpIbpw sNbvXncpp. Imhns aptmSnbmb kv\m]Itbmlm AWen Ipp Fp hnfnv ITn\amb `mjbn ]coimsc A]e]nncpp. Imhmb tbip{InkvXphns\ ]nSnIqSm\pw ]oVnnm\pw Ipcnintephm\pap ]Xn XmdmnbXv ]coimcpsS _pnbnembncpp.

CHRISTIAN EDUCATION ARTICLES MALAYALAM

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