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HISTORY AND GROWTH OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN EARLY CENTURIES-SERIES 4
BZy \qmpIfnse {InkvXob hnZym`ymkns Ncn{Xhpw hfbpw 4

By Dr. Rajan Mathew B.E., M.E., Ph.D.

LANGUAGE AND DOCUMENTATION FACILITIES AVAILABLE IN EARLY CENTURIES
`mjm hnZym`ymkhpw tUmIypsatj kuIcyfpw

]pcmX\ Imes ]pkvXIw \nn:
]pcmX\ {Koknepw, tdmanepw ]pkvXI \nnpXn\v Ghpw {]Nmcap hkvXp ]mndkv, XpI, shw Fnhbmbncpp. \nch[n \qmpIfmbn ]mndkv tdmfpI \ne\nncpp. shw tImUnIvkpI Ahsb ]npSp. ]mndkv Ffpn e`yamXncp kabfn XpI D]tbmKnncnp. ]s AXv A{X P\{]obw Bbncpn. {Kop temIs Ghpw {]NmcapXpw e`yambXpamb saocnb Bbncpp ]mndkv, IqSmsX Fm tdma mknpIfpw ]mndkn FgpXnbnpv. shůn hfcp ]mndkv sNSnbpsS abn \nmWv FgpXm D]tbmKnp ]mndkv XmdmpXv. CuPn]vXnse ss\ \Znbnepw XSfnepw Cu sNSn karambn hfncpp. ]mndkv tdmfpI hfsc hgapXpw AbhpXpambncpp. Zim_vZftfmfhpw \qmpItfmfhpw ]mndkv NcpfpI A\mbmtk\ NpcppIbpw \nhpIbpw sNbvXncpp. aqmw kl{km_vZn t]mepw ]mndkv CuPn]vXn D]tbmKnncppshv AdnbsSpp.

]mndkv \ne\nncp AtX kabv Xs shhpw \ne\nncpp; Fnepw AXv A]qambn am{XamWv D]tbmKnncpXv. Fm ]mndkv tImsUIvkv P\{]oXn t\SnsbSppXn\p apv Xs shw tImsUIvkv hn]Wnbntev hncpp. tImUIvkv \psS B[p\nI ]pkvXIġv kam\w Bbncpp. ]mndkv Asn shw jopI D]tbmKnv \nnncnp Ah NcSpI D]tbmKntm XpI IjW D]tbmKntm ]ckv]cw tNp sInbncpp. XpI t]mse shhpw arKfpsS sXmenIfn \nmWv \nnpXv. sXmenI IgpIn NpcpIbpw, ]ypanv IpI sImv tcma \ow sNpIbpw sNpp. aSpIfpw hifpw an\pksSpnb tijw Ah kw`cnpp. Nns tcmahiw FgpXpXn\pw \ne \npXn\pw A\ptbmPyambncpp.

]mndkv jopI tNpsIn ]pkvXIw cq]n BpXns\bmWv ]mndkv tImUnIvkv FdnbsSpXv. aceII sImp t_mUpI apnepw ]nnepw aqSnbncnpw. XSn IhdpIfn Zzmc Ingnv ]pkvXI Hcpanv tNpIbpw sNbvXncpp. {InkvXob bpKns XpSn tdmamm apnepw ]nnepw D aceII a, Nphv, ], ]n \ndfnep Xnfap XpIsImv aqSm XpSn. Cv Ahtijnp ]e ]mndkv tImUnIvkpIfpw {InkvXob IrXnIfpsS cN\IfmWv. {InkvXob IrXnI ]mndkv NpcpfpItfm IqSpX ]mndkv tImUnIvkpIfnemWv tJsSpnbncpXv.v

{InkvXobXbvv ap]p kmlnXyw ]mndkv NpcpfpImWv D]tbmKnncpXv. A.D. \memw \qmn\ptijw Ch ISemkv tImUnIvkpIfn kwcnsp. sNcnbmSpIsftbm tImemSpIsftbm sXmenIfn \nmWv Av ISemkv \nnncpXv. BZyw FgpXphm D]tbmKnncp ]mndkv F ]Zn \npamWv, aebmfntv ISemkv Fp Xa sNs, Cwojnse t] F ]Zw cq]oIcnsXv. As Ccw ISemkpI [Parchment] Cp \apv Adnbmhp ISemkpIfpsS icnbmb cq]n Ambncpp. Cp \mw ImWp cq]nep ISemkpI \nnsXv A.D. Fmw \qmnemWv. ]pkvXI \nmWnse amfpsS Bcw` kabn\SpmWv ]pXnb\nba cN\I \nnXv.

]pcmX\ Imes Hcp ]pkvXIns kmh{XnI cq]amWv tdm Asn Npcp. Hcp jon\v km[mcWbmbn ]Xnaqv Cv \ofhpw H]Xv Cp hoXnbpw DmIpw. Hcp km[mcW tdmfn Ccp]Xv jopI hsc Hcpanv tNncpp. Hcp km[mcW {Kop kmlnXy tdmfns Xo{h ]cn[n apv ASn Bbncnpw. cN\I Hcp hiv a{Xambncpp. (shfn]mSv 5:1) blqZm ]gb\nba XncpshgppIsf XfpsS kn\tKmKpIfn kqnm thn seX NpcpfpIfn ]In FgpXnbncpp. hnip tbmlms aqmas teJ\ns ]Xnaqmw hmIyn Im_ an \nv \nn doUv t]\bptSbpw ajnbptSbpw cN\Isf kqNnnpp. 2 tbmlm 12mw hmIyn ISemkn ajnsImv FgpXnbXmbn ]cmainpp. KmlnI kvIq cN\Iġv kvssekv D]tbmKnncpp. "Rm t{Xmhmkn Ismknsd ] shtp t]m ]pXpw ]pkvXIfpw hntijm NenJnXfpw \o hcptm sImphcnI.' (2 XosamsYsbmkv 4:13) Cu hN\n kqNnnpXv hnip ]utemkns t\mp]pkvXItfm {InkvXob cN\Itfm BImw.

`mjI
alm\mb AeIvkmdns hnPbtmsS Ing saUntd\nb {]tZiw apgph\pw {Kov `mj kwkmcnp. ]nnSv CXv tdma km{amPyneqsSbpw hym]np. emn, {Kov Fnh tdma km{amPyns HutZymKnI `mjbmbncppshnepw ap `mjI {]mtZinIambn {][m\ambncpp. emn tdmammcpsS bYm `mjbmbncpp; mkn ImeLnepS\ofw km{amPy `cWw, \nba \nmWw, ssk\yw FnhbpsS `mjbmbn XpSp. tdmamm {Kop`mjsb ]T\ntbpw kwkvImcntbpw `mjbmbn kzoIcnp. km{amPyns AXnnIġpdv Ing saUntd\nb\p Nppap \bX{ Bibhn\nabn\v sImbn {Kov ( [Koine Greek] Hcp ]n `mjbmbn amdnbncpp. {Kons AtZiob D]tbmKw {InkvXpaXns hym]\s {]m]vXamn. {]tXyInv ss__nfnse ]pXnb\nba `mjbmbn {Kons\ XncsSpXpw {InkvXy tdmam km{amPynse FIypsa\n IuknepIfn {Kons D]tbmKhpw {i AlnphbmWv. kvs]bn, Ku, Cen FnhnSfn tdma cmjv{Sob A[nImcw XItXmsS ]Snmd saUntd\nb {]tZifn {Kov kwkmcnpXv Ahkm\nnp; {Kop ]cnm\hpw {]NpcXbpw ]Snmd bqtdmn \sp. 1453 ss_kss km{amPyw Hmtma XpnItfmSp ]X\n\p tijw {Kop `mjbpsS hym]vXn {Konse {][m\ `q{]tZifn am{Xambn HXpn.

tdma km{amPyw `mjIfptSbpw, kwkvImc,fptSbpw aXfptSbpw sshhn[ys Dsmncpp. Acw Hcp tImkvtams]mfn km{amPyns IpSogn hknp Fm P\fpw emn `mj AdnbpItbm ]TnpItbm sNbvXncnWsaXv {iaIcamb {]XobmWv. AdnbsSp temIns `qcn`mKhpw tdmamm IogSpXn\p ap]v emn Hcp Ahyhpw A{]khpamb ay Cmenb `mj Bbncpp. IogSnb ssk\ytmsSmw tdmamm AhcpsS `mjbpw sImphp. As\ AXv km{amPyns HutZymKnI Zmjbmbn. Fm km tcJIfpw emn\n kqnpIbpw \nba]camb CS]mSpI emn\n \SpIbpw sNbvXp. hmkvXhn, tdmamkm{amPynse hnZymkcmb BfpI emns\m IpSpX {Kov kwkmcnpXn\mWv {]Xn_X ImnbncpXv. km{amPyns Ing ]IpXn ]qambpw {Kov `mj am{XamWv kwkmcnncpXv . ]Snmdns ]X\n\p tijw Ing tdmam km{amPyw iambn \nesImpIbpw {]m[m\yw hnbpw .sNbvXp. tSmfmaoIv, skeyqnUv `cWm[nImcnIfpsS Imew apX ay]qtZins an `mjIfpw {Kov BbncpXn\m, ss_kss km{amPyns km CS]mSpI IqSpX {Kon \Sm XpSn. Cu {Iam\pKXamb {]{Inb enJnX kmlnXyn Akm[mcWamb kzm[o\w sNepn. BnIv {Kov ss_skss F B[p\nI {Kov cq]hXvIcnp.

{Kons hnm\w {]mYanIambn mknpIfn am{Xw HXpnbtm ]pXnb\nbaw "hnipmmhv {Kov' [Holy Spirit Greek] Fv hntijnsSp Hcp {]tXyI {Kons\ {]Xn\n[oIcnpXmbn {]Xysp. {]tXyInpw, CXv shfn]mSns Dtiyn\mbn ]cnipmmhn\m {]tNmZ\w Dsm `mjbmbncpp. ]pXnb\nbanse {Kons hyXncnXsb "PqX {Kov' [Judish Greek] Fv ]ecpw hymJym\np. ]pXnb\nbaw km[mcW {Kov `mjbnse aXns {]mtZinI {`mjmssien Hgnhmpp. IqSmsX ]pdPmXob aX ]Zsf _sSpmsX amn \nnbncpp.

Acmanv, kndnbv:
kndnbbptSbpw sakstmanbbptSbpw {]mYanI `mjbmbncpp Acmanv. ]e en]nIfp Acanv Imhmb tbip{InkvXp kwkmcn `mjbmbncpp Fp hnizknsSpp. tdmam km{amPynse Ghpw henb aqp \Kcfn Hmb AtymIybn, {]tXyInv {InkvXym\nI kndnbv kwkmcnncpp. cmw \qmns Ahkm\n FsUmbnse {InkvXy kaqln \nv hym]nv kndnbv kmlnXyw {]Npc {]Nmcw t\Snbncpp. BZyIme kndnbv kmlnXyw \memw \qmphsc {Kov _unI Npp]mSn hfp hp. IqSmsX bptk_nbkv, t_kn apXemb {Kov FgppImsc kzm[o\npIbpw sNbvXp. BZyIme kndnb kmlnXy IrXnIfn ss__n `mKfpsS hnh\fpw hniIe\fpw DsSpp. kndnbv FgppImc\mb F{^bnans IrXnI {Kontev Xa sNsp.

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