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HISTORY AND GROWTH OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN EARLY CENTURIES-SERIES 3
BZy \qmpIfnse {InkvXob hnZym`ymkns Ncn{Xhpw hfbpw 3

By Dr. Rajan Mathew B.E., M.E., Ph.D.

POLITICAL AND SOCIAL ATMOSPHERE IN EARLY CENTURIES
BZna \qmpIfnse cm{ob-kmaqly Acow

tdmam, cm{ IogSpIbpw tImf\nI m]npIbpw sNbvX km{amPyXz ]cn]mSnI Bcw`ntm bq{^okns [Euphrates] cm{ob, kmwkvImcnI ss]XrIw Hcp ]nKmanbmbn Ah GsSpp. tdmw m]nsXn\p hfsc apt] Xs {Kov tImf\nI knknenbnepw [Sicily] ZnW Cenbnepw [Southern Italy] Dmbncpp. {Kov Bv [Greek art], hmkvXphnZy [Architecture] FnhbpsS kXsb tdmamm Xncndnp. {Kov ssienItfbpw Bibtfbpw {Kov kwkvImcfn \npw Ah ISw hmn, XfpsS kzw Iebn A\pIcnm {ianp. hmkvXhn tdma Bbncpp {Kov, sl\nkvnIv kwkvImcw [Hellenistic culture] sshhn[y temItv sImphXv. Ah krn \Kcsf at\mlcamm {Kov IemImcmscbpw IcIuiehnZKvZtcbpw {t]mmlnnp. Fm Ah XfpsS Xs sshZKvZyamsWv tdmamm {]Ncnnp. {KopImcpsS `mj, hnZym`ymk k{Zmbw, kmlnXy Bib Fnhsbms tdmamm kzoIcnp. Ipeo\amb tdma `h\fn IpnI Fm {]mtbmKnI Bhiypambn {Kov `mjbn Bgnep Adnhv hfn. CenbUpw HUoknbpw [Iliad and Odyssey] t]mep {Kov kmlnXyfpsS almb IrXnIfpw Ah ]Tnnp. Fncpmepw, tdmamm XfpsS {Kov FXncmfnIfpambn XmcXayw sNptm AhcpsS aXhnizmkfn Gsd apnembncpp. Ames kaImenI kaqls \ XmcXaysSpptm, {Kokns \nb{WLSIw hynbpw hynKX{]m[m\yhpw BsWv \mw ImWpp. AtXkabw, tdman\v AXv AhcpsS dnnpw \nbahpw Bbncpsn t]jymv AhcpsS cmPmhpw blqZamv tamibpw I\Ifpw Bbncpp.

tdmamm henb \nmXmfmbncpp. AXn\m tdmamkm{amPynepS\ofw Dmbncp tdmUpIfpw ]mefpw ap Bibhn\nab ASnm\ kuIcyfpw {InkvXym\nXzns {]NcWn henb kzm[o\w sNepn. kvtImveUn \npw bq{^okvhsc [Scotland to the Euphrates] GItZiw A]n aqhmbncw ssaepItfmfw ssZLyap tdmUpI ]pcmX\ temIn hfsc X{]camb {]m[m\yw Alnpp. sZ_bnepw, Ctm\ybnepw ]nknZy AtymIybnepw [Derbe, Iconium, and Pisidian Antioch] hnip ]utemkv ZuXyw \SnbXv tdmamm \nn {][m\ tdmUpIfnqSn bm{X sNbvXnmbncpp. kndnbbnse AtymIybn\npw Xskmkvv, ethmZnIy, Fs^skmkv [Antioch of Syria and Tarsus to Apamea, Laodicea and Ephesus] Fn {]tZifnepw Ah tdma tdmUpIfneqsS bm{X sNbvXp. ( [Acts 13:14,51;14:20-21;15:42-16:2) (Acts 20:5-6; 16:11; 2 Cor.2:12] )

tbip P\n ImeLw F \nebnepw Hcp ]pXnb bpKns Bhn`mhw Ipdn ImeLw F \nebnepw kok AKkvkns [Caesar Augustus] `cWImeLw ap tdmam N{IhnIfptSXn \nv {]m[m\yalnpXmbncpp. AKkvkv B.C. 12 N{Ihnbmbn. Atlns `cWImew kpnchpw, kam[m\]chpw, khpambncpp. P\ AhcpsS t\Xmmn kwXr]vXcpw A`nam\w sImpIbpw sNbvXncpp. tdma aXfpsS {]m[m\yw t{]mmlnnpXn\mbn Atlw t{X \nnp. IebpsS cm[nImcnbmbncpp Atlw. tdmanse IemkrnI hfpXn\pw sasSppXn\pw ktmj]qw Atlw ]Ww sNehgnp. AXn\mbn [\nIhKs {t]mmlnnpIbpw sNbvXp. km{amPyns [mnI Imemh sasSpphm AKkvkv ]ccmKX tdma aXs ]p\cpohnnm {ianp. ]ccmKX tdma IpSpw_s m]nXamb \nbafm _esSpm Atlw {ianp. AXv hy`nNmcn\v innpIbpw, hnhmln\v BhiysSpIbpw, hn[hIfpsS ]p\hnhmlw \SpIbpw sNbvXp.

ASnaw, tkmjy kZmNmcw [Slavery and Social Morality]
]pcmX\ kaqln ASnaw Hcp ASnm\LSIambncpp. sle\nI, tdma ImeLfn ASnahyh hfsc hn]peambn \ne\nncpp. {IqcXbvpw ssewKnI ssekkn\pw ASnaw hgnsXfnp. bpw, ss]dkn, IpnIfpsS A\mY kmnyw, IS hom thn kzbamtbm IpnIfpsStbm hn\, tImSXnIfn Ipw Npa, ASnabmb AbneqsS P\\w apXembhbmbncpp ASnaIfpsS Dhw. Hcp ASna kzX{\mIptm t{XtcJIfn AXv tcJsSpmdpmbncpp. ]pXnb \nban ]m]]cnlmcn\p hosSpSbmfw Bbncnmw CXv. tdma \nban AwKoIrXamb Hcp {]tbmKhpw tdma skmssknbn kmam\y_pnv ]cnNnXamb Hcp BNmchpambncpXnembncnmw hnip ]utemkv ZsSp F ]Zw Xs Xzsf kanphm D]tbmKnXv. [Gal 4:5; Rom 8:15, 23; Eph 1:5] ZsSp tdma kaqln CtXnt\m {]Npcambncpp. GXp {]mbnepw ZsSps hyn Xs KXhyhbn \npw ]q hntamNnX\pw Fm ]gb ISfpw dmsh\pambncpp. Ah ZsSp IpSpw_nse _pġnSbn ]pXnsbmcp PohnXw Bcw`npIbpw sNbvXncpp. IpSpw_mwKns t]cnepw AhcpsS ]mccynepw Ah\v AlXbpmbncpp.

kmaqlnI kmapZmbnI kwLS\bpsS ]e khntijXIfpw hn{Klmcm[\bn \npw Asn ssZhfpambp _ԯn \npw Dcpncnhbmbncpp. Ah [mnIXbpsS XIbvpw ImcWambncpp. IphmfnIġv in \InbncpXv J\nIfntev \mSpISnbpw h[in Ipcnintenbpw Bbncpp. ssewKnI ]m] s]mXpth, ]pXnb\nbanse anhmdpw Fm ImtemKpIfnepw {]Xn]mZnncpp. ssewKnIXbvv At\Iw ]cymbfpmbncpp. [1 Cor. 6:9; Gal 5:19, Col 3:5] kzhKcXnsb kvt\lns t{ijvTamb cq]ambn IWmsncpp. thiymhrn FXv Hcp AwKoIrX m]\w am{Xa, Gjymssa\, kndnb, ^n\ojy [Asia Minor, Syria, and Phoenicia] FnhbpsS ^e`qbnjvTamb IeIfpsS kzm[o\n Nne t{Xfn aX]camb NSpIfmbncpp.

hnhmlhpw IpSpw_hpw
[Marriage and family]
: blqZ, {Kov, tdma kaqlfn \nehnencp hnhmlPohnXw GI `mcy `r hyhbnembncpp. AXv tamN\clnXambncpn. {InkvXpaXns ]me {IaoIcWw \Inb Fm kwkvImcfnepw kaqlns ASnm\ LSIambncpp IpSpw_w. dn\nv t{kmXkpIfn{]Imcw [rabbinic sources] PqXhnhmlw {Kov, tdmam hnhml ]mccyfpambn Htsd Hu]NmcnI kmZriy ImWnpp. Fm kaqlfnepw hnhml_ԧ Hcpanv Pohnm kXw \IpXpw {]P\\n\p D]m[nbpw Bbncpp. AKkvkv N{IhnbpsS `cWImev IpSpw_w kwm\ns \nban Iognembn. {Kov \nba {]Imcw hnhmln\p ap]mbn Hcp hnhml DSSn \n_nXambncnWw. hnhmltamN\n\p Hcmtfm cpt]cptam Bb InI \Ip Hcp efnXamb Hmd Asn tcJmaqeap Adnbnv aXnbmbncpp. Hmw \qmn blqZ\nbanse hyhbn \nv hyXykvXambn, tdmanepw {Koknepw hnhmltamN\n\mbn kv{Xobvpw ]pcpj\pw hnfw_cw sNphm km[npambncpp. Fm blqZ \nba{]Imcw hnhmltamN\w e`nphm\p AhImiw ]pcpj\v am{XapXmbncpp. [Mark10:11-12; Matt. 5:32]

kaqln kv{XobpsS m\w [Place of Woman]
]pcpj B[n]Xyap {Kov kaqln kv{XoIġv bmsXmcp cm{ob AhImihpw Dmbncpn. kv{XoIġv hnZym`ymkw e`nncpsnepw Krl Imcyġv tat\mw hlnp Hcp kv{XobpsS ew Krln\pn Xsbmbncpp. kv{XoIsf Dsmm\p hfsc Ipd km[yXbp ]pcpj ta[mhnXzw \ne \nncp Hcp taJebmbncpp Xzimkv{Xw [Philosophy]. {Kov kv{XoIġv hnZym`ymkw e`nncpXv kzw `h\ntem \mbn A`ykn hnZKvcn \ntm Bbncpp. hmb\, Fgpv, KWnXw, kv]nnwKv, s\bvv, Fw{t_mbnUdn, ]mv, \rw, kwKoX D]IcWw Fnhbn s]IpnIġv AhcpsS hoSpIfn ]cnioe\w e`nncpp. kv]mbn [Spartan] B IpnIġv kam\amb Hu]NmcnI hnZym`ymkw s]IpnIġpw e`nncpp. _lpam\nsSp kv{XoI s]mXpefn kwkmcnncpn. ^nennb kv{XoIġv, {]tXyInv amkntUmWnbbnse [Macedonian] kv{XoIġv s]mXpImcyfn kzmX{yhpw {]m[m\yhpw Dmbncpp. ap kwkvImcsf At]nv hynsb \nebn cm{ob AhImisfmpw Dmbncpnsnepw tdma kv{XoI kaqln Hcp _lpam\hpw BZchpw BkzZnncpp. Fm kv{XoIġpw _lpam\hpw BZchpw \IWsav tdma ]mccyw \njvjnncpp. tdma ]pcpjm XfpsS hoptPmXmfmbn IWmsncpXn\m tdma kv{XoIsf hoSns Xpcmnbmbn IWmnbncpp. ]pcpjmcpsS A`mhn m\]qhw `cnm kv{XoI {]m]vXcmsWv Ah {]Xonncpp. cm{obamb ImcWfmepw bpw aqehpw DmIp ]pcpjmcpsS A`mhn ]pcpjmcn ]ecpw sNmdp an tPmenIfpw tdma kv{XoI sNbvXncpp. IqSmsX, tdma h\nXI s]IpnIfpsSbpw BIpnIfpsSbpw hnZym`ymkn\v DchmZnIfmbncpp. blqZ kv{XoI {Kov kv{XoIsftmse ]cky{]hnIfn ]cnanXsncpnsnepw, Hmw \qmnse tdma h\nXIsftmse kzmX{yanmbncpp. kv{XoI tXmlvd \nbafpw Bibfpw ]TnpXn\pw AXv \ndthpXn\pw \njvIjnncpp. ]mkvd Fnkvnense kv{XoIsf ]cmainp hnhcW {Kov Bibn\v hfsc ASpp \npp. [1 Tim 5:14; Titus 2:3-5]

hnt\mZw [Entertainment] :
B.C. 708 m]nXamb HfnnIvknse kvt]mvkv [Olympic Sports] hfsc ]pcmX\hpw ImbnI Ncn{Xw DsmpXpamWv. HutZymKnIambn AwKoIrXamb A{Ia [Officially sanctioned violence] Nne sKbnw IfnbpsS `mKambncpp. {KopIm Pnwt\jyw, kvtUnbw [Gymnasium and stadium] Fnhbnse hymbmaġv {]m[m\yw \Inbncpp. Bw^n Xnb kvt]mSvkv, kkv [Amphitheatre and circus] apXemb ]cn]mSnIġv tdmamm IqSpX {i ]Xnnncpp. BZyIme Cw]ocnb tdman [Imperial Rome] hfsc sshhnyam ImgvNIfp hnt\mZfpambn [Spectacle Entertainments] at\mlcamb ku[ Dmbncpp. BZyIme {InkvXob [mnIhmZnIfpw hmfpw [Early Christian moralists and Apologists] ]pdPmXob temInse aqp Xcw ImgvNIsf hnainncpp: \mSIthZnbpw, Bw^nsjbdpw, kkpw [Theatre, the amphitheatre, and circus]. s]mXpP\k ]cn]mSnIfpsS Ghpw henb eambncpp XotbdpI [Theatres] . [Acts 19:29]

hnZym`ymkw [Education] :
{Konse hnZym`ymk k{Zmbw {InkvXob hnZym`ymkn henb kzm[o\w sNepn. CXv {InkvXob hnZym`ymknse XzNn, ]mTy]Xn LS\, coXnimkv{Xw [Christian educational philosophy, curriculum structure, and methodology] Fnhbvv henb kw`mh\ \In. Cu sshhn[yns Ghpw anI DZmlcWfn csamWv kv]m, GYknse \Kc-kwm\ Fnh. kv]mm kmlnXyw, aXw, `mj Fnhbn ap {KopImcpambn ]ptNv ]T\w \Sn. ]s kv]m hnZym`ymkw {][m\ambpw imcocnIhpw, ssk\nIhpw, [mnIhpw Bbncpp. kv]m hnZym`ymk k{Zmbns _m[yX hfsc KuchtadnbXmbncpp. AwKoIrX ASewL\w \Sphsc ]ucXzn \nv Hgnhmsncpp. Hcp kv]m IpnbpsS hnZym`ymkw hfsc sNdpn Xs Bcw`npp. hnZym`ymkn\mbp {Kop]Z, am\hnI cq]hXvIcWs kqNnnpXn\v eo\ntev ]cn`mjsSpnb ]cnioe\tam inWtam BWv. {Kov hnZym`ymkw {]mYanIambn ^nkn, ssk\oIw, [mnIX Fnh Bbncpp. {Kov IpnbpsS hnZym`ymkhpw hfsc sNdpn Xs Bcw`nncpp. ASnm\]cambn GYkn \mep Xcw hnZymeb Dmbncpp. 6 apX 13 hsc {]mbap BIpnIv thn {]mYanI hnZymeb, ]Xnaqv apX ]smXv hscbp BIpnIġmbp skdn kvIqfpI, ]Xns\papX Ccp]ncv hsc {]mbap BIpnIġpff ssk\nI DX hnZym`ymkn\p kvIqfpI. an kvIqfpIfpw sNdpInS kzImcy kz`mhaphbmbncpp. A[ym]Is ifw hnZymnItfm, hnZym`ymk m]\ġv kvt]mkjnv \Inbncp kcmb ]ucmtcm \Inbncpp. _n. kn Amw \qmn tkm^nkvpI GYknse kmwkvImcnI-hnZym`ymk cwKs kzm[o\nm XpSn. tkm{Iokv [Socrates] [470-399 B.C] Cs Imepw D]tbmKnsSp Hcp ]Tnn coXn hnIknnsSpp. hnZym`ymks kzm[o\n asmcp AtY\mc ttm Plato [428-348 B.C.] Bbncpp. Acnkvtmn Aristotle [384-322 B.C.] GYknse Ahkm\s hnZym`ymk hnNW\mbncpp. Acnkvtmnen kaqlw {]IrXnZ m]\amWv. ASnas Hcp kzm`mhnI kwkvmcambn Ah honp, ImcWw {]IrXnbn Hcmġv asmcmfnt\m P\mXs {tijvTXbpsv Atlw hnizknp. \memw \qmns Ahkm\w, AeIvkmdns km{amPyw m]nXambtXmsS, {Kov kwkvImc B[n]Xyns Hcp ]pXnb bpKw XpSn. AeIvkmdpsS Aym]I\mb Acnkvtmnens kzm[o\apmbncp sl\nk kwkvImcambncpp AXv. sl\nI hnZym`ymkw kmwkvImcnI hnIk\n\v hgn sXfnp. B.C. aqmasbpw cmasbpw \qmpIfn ap\nknmennbpsS \nb{nX {]mYanI hnZymeb kwhn[m\w cq]sp.

BZyIme tdmammcpsS hnZym`ymkns {]mYanI GPkn IpSpw_w Bbncpp. A Ippsf IcpXpIbpw IpnIġv tdmam ]uc AdnncntsXmw ]cnioennbpw sNbvXncpp. Ggv hbn {]mtbmKnI hnZym`ymkw Bcw`npp. an BIpnIfpw Irjnbnep sshZKvZyw AhcpsS kzw ]nXmhn\npw D ]cnioe\neqsS e`yamn. tdma skdn hnZym`ymkw ]{v apX ]Xn\mdv hbv hsc {]mbap bphmġv hymIcW hnZymebfn tI{oIcnpXmbncpp. Cu kvIqfpIfn tdmamm {]ISnn hnZym`ymk]camb BZi en_d hnZym`ymkns {Kov k]n\v kam\ambncpp. tdma DX hnZym`ymkw {][m\ambpw hmNmtSm]spdnp [Rhetoric] ]T\ambncpp. Hmw \qmn Hcp tdma km \bw hnIknm XpSn. Ggv apX ]{p hbphsc {]mbap tdma BIpnIġmbnp {]mYanI hnZymeb kmlnXy [mnI hnZym`ymkns Hcp GPv Bbnop, Ah GXmv AtX {Kov hnZym`ymk amXrIbnembncpp. ]T\ coXnIfn ]In\pw a\]mTn\pw [Memorization and copying] {]m[m\yw \In. BZyIme km{amPyns kabambtmtgpw FgppIebvv henb {]m[m\yapmbncpp. kvIqfpIfnse ASw hfsc ITn\ambncpp. kvIqfn \npw hcnIbpw t]mIpIbpw sNptm IpnIfpsS IqsS Hcp s]tUmtKmKn [Pedagogues] A\pKanncpp. km[mcWbmbn, Atlw [hpw s]mXpP\tahpw t\mn\Sm \nbanX\mb ASnabmbncpp. [Gal. 3:23-25] km[mcWKXnbn s]tUmtKmKnI IpnIsf ITn\ambn ]oUnnpIbpw {Iqcambn s]cpamdpIbpw sNbvXncpp. tdma skUdn hnZym`ymkw ]{n\pw ]Xn\mdn\pw CSbn {]mbap bphmġv hymIcW hnZymebfn tI{oIcnncpp. A[ym]I Hcp ]mTw hmbnpIbpw hniZoIcnpIbpw sNbvXpsImv hmNmtSm]ns hnai\w, hmpIfpsSbpw k\ymkfpsSbpw Aw, antYmfPn, Ncn{Xspdnp ]cmai, hymIcWw, IrXyamb D]tbmKw, cN\bpsS N Fnhsbpdnv hniZoIcnm\p coXnbmbncpp {]t_m[\ coXn.

tdma DX hnZym`ymknepw {Kov kzm[o\w Dmbncpp. tdmam km{amPyw IqSpX koWambtXmsS, tdmam {Kov hmNmtSm]ns [Rhetoric] Blzm\w IqSpX cqambn. tdmamm {Kov hmNmtSm]mcpsS D]mXmhpIbmbncpp. hmNmtSm]ns Pknamb B LSI tdmamm AhcpsS PohnX ssienbn kzoIcnp. Xzimkv{Xw, KWnXw, kwKoXw, kmlnXyw, hmNmtSm]w, tPymsa{SnIvkv, tPymXnimkv{Xw [philosophy, mathematics, music, literature, rhetoric, geometry and astronomy] XpSnbhbpsS ]T\amWv hymIcW kvIqfnse ]mTy]Xnbn DsSpvnbncpXv.

{InkvXob hnZym`ymkw PqX hnZym`ymkns Hcp hn]peoIcWamWv. DSSnbn ]dncnpXpt]mse ssZhhpambp AhcpsS _ԯns Ncn{XamWv blqZcpsS Ncn{Xw. PohnXns Fm hifpw DsSpn km[mcWhpw A\u]NmcnIhpw Bbncpp hnZym`ymkw. HmaXmbn, \nbaw A\pimknp BNmc A\pjvTnp ]ptcmlnXmsc ]cnioenntXpmbncpp. cmaXmbn, \nban BfpIsf, {]tXyInv Bcm[\, bmK, Dh, av aX]camb ISaI Fnhsbpdnv ]cnioennncpp. hoSpw aXehpw PqX aXhnZym`ymkn\pw hmbnpIbpw FgpXpIbpw sNpXn\pw D Hcp {]mYanI hnZym`ymk tI{ambncpp. blqZ {]mYanI hnZymeb A.D. cmw \qmn hsc sbcpitean\v ]pdmWv hym]Iambn ImWsncpXv. Ames {]mYanI hnZymeb imkv{XnamcpsS [Scribe] hmb\ \Sp Krlfmbncpp. mpI ]etmgpw kn\tKmKn\p [Synagogue] Npnepw ASpp apdnIfnepw \Snbncpp. blqZ Ipn F{_mb XncpshgppI hmbnm\pw XncpshgppI a\x]mTampXn\pw henb {]m[m\yw \Ipambncpp.

\nbaw ]Tnnp skdn kvIqfpI cmw \qmn \ne\nncpXmbn IcpXsSpp. alm\mb Hcp ]nX\mIpXn\v hn]peamb ]T\w Bhiyambnhp. [Acts 22:3] Cu Ln hnZymnI, XncpshgppIfpsS hymJym\hpw dn\nIv \nbahpw [Talmud] {]m[m\yw \In A`yknncpp. Cu ]T\w dn Asn aX ]nX F \nebn {]hnm\p Hcp XmsdSpmbncpp. bphmsf, ]Wmct\m, ]mhsht\m, ]nXt\m, ]mact\m, AmXt\m, ehmkntbm F hyXymkw CmsX GsXnepw Hcp sXmgnen ]cnioennncpp. [St. Paul Acts 18:3] cmw \qmn\ptijw hnZymkcmb blqZ {Kov, emn Fo `mjI A\fambn kwkmcnncpp. PqX hnZym`ymkn {Kov-tdma hnZym`ymkns AtX coXnI D]cnhambn ]npSncpsnepw, DSw Xptemw hyXykvXambncpp. blqZ hnZym`ymkns eyw aXhpw tXmdbpsS [Torah] Adnhpw {]tbmKhpw Bbncpp. tlmadnsbpw \mSIIrpIfpsSbpw [Homer and dramatists] ]T\n\p]Icw, hnZymnI XncpshgppIfpsSbpw imk{XnamcpsS hmsamgn ]mccynsbpw ]mT ]Tnp. [Josephus: Antiquities translation] kn\tKmKpIfpsS {]mYanIeyw \nba ]T\hpw \ntifpw Bbncpp. Bh\neqsSbpw a\]mTfneqsSbpw BWv Aym]\w \SnbncpXv. blqZv \ymb{]amWw hmbnm\pw BtemNnm\pw N sNm\pw Ignbp Hcp eambncpp kn\tKmKv. blqZ hnZym`ymkn kn\tKmKpI hfsc {]m[m\yw Alnpp. AXmbXv GXmv ]v blqZ ]pcpjmcpmbncp efn Hcp kn\tKmKv Dmbncpp.

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