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hnip ]utemkv AsmkvtXmes cmw anjy\dn bm{X

By Dr. Rajan Mathew

hnip ]utemkns Hmw anjy\dn bm{Xbvptijw Ipsd \mfpI Ignv, BZy t{]jI DZyan Ah m]n k`I hopw kinvv ktlmZcm Fs\bncnpp Fp t\mWsav s]utemkv __mknt\mSp \ntinp. atmkv F tbmlms\bpw Iqn t]mIphm __mkv B{Klnp. s]utemtkm ]w^peybn \np Xsf hnp anjy ]qnbmmsX t]mb Hcmsf Iqnsmp t]mIpXp tbmKya Fp \ncq]np __mknt\mSv hntbmPnp. As\ Ah Xn D{KhmZapmbnp th ]ncnp hyXykvX BfpIsf XncsSpv hyXykvX efntev t]mbn. __mkv atmkns\ Iqn I Ibdn Ips{]mkv Zzo]ntep t]mbn. s]utemtkm ioemkns\ XncsSpp ktlmZcmcm ssIshp \In Imhnsd Ir]bn `ctaev]nsnp bm{X ]pdsp kndnb, knenkym tZifn IqSn kcnp k`Isf Ddnp t]mp.

hnip ]utemkns klNmcnbmbncp ioemkv ]utemkns teJ\fn ]cmainncnpXpt]mse knhm\kv Fpw AdnbsSpp. ap {]kvXmhnXpt]mse sbdpitew kpltZmkns Xocpam\w AtymIy k`bvv ssIamdm \ntbmKns tbdpitew k`bnse Hcp {]apJ {]hmNI\mbncpp ioemkv. ]noSv ]utemkv sXsem\nbsgpXnb cv teJ\fptSbpw klcNbnXmhmbn {]hnnpv. ]utemknt\mSpw XnsamsYtbmkn\psamw sImcnn k`bn {]kwKnncpp. hnip ]t{Xmkns BZyteJ\n ioemkns\ Hcp hnizkvX ktlmZc\mbn hntijnnnpv. ioemkpw ]utemkns\tmse Hcp tdma ]uc\mbncpp.

XnsamsYsbmknsd Bhn`mhw:
]utemkpw ioemkpw BZy bm{Xbn kinv k`Iġv hnp ]mInb sZbnsepw ]ns epkv{Xbntepw kndnbbnse AtymIybn\nv bm{X Xncnp. BZys anjy\dn bm{Xbn apSs\ kuJyampIbpw AXp \mSIob cwKġv hgn sXfnbpw sNbvX epkv{Xbn Atmtgpw ssZhk` Xgp hfncpp. AhnsS hnizmkaptmcp sblqZkv{XobpsS aI\mbn XnsamsYsbmkv Fp t]cp Hcp injy Dmbncpp. Ahsd A bh\\mbncpp. Ahs A bq\obpw henb temhokpw hfsc t\cs Xs ]cnh\w sNs BmXbpw Ir]bpw \nd hnizmknIfmbncpp. hninamb kZvKpWhpw `nbpw D kv{XoI F \nebn hnip ]utemkv Ccphtcbpw hfsc _lpam\tmsS IcpXpIbpw AhcpsS Idbnm hnizmks mLnpIbpw sNbvXncpp. {InkvXptbiphnep hnizmkm cp m\nbmphm aXnbmb XncpshgppIsf _meyw apX hnizkvXXtbmsS ]TnpIbpw AdnIbpw sNbvX Hcp hnizmkn Bbncpp XnsamsYsbmkvv. Atlw epkv{Xbnepw Ctm\ybnepap ktlmZcmcm \ kmyhpw {]ikvXnbpw t\Snbncp hyn Bbncpp. Atln\v Pep\npw Ab{]tZifn \npw Ifanm {]ikvXn am{Xa, AgnaXnbn\nv ap\pambncpp. XtmSpIqSn kphntijthebvmbn XnsamsYsbmkv hcWsav ]utemkv B{Klnp.

XnsamsYtbmkns A bh\ Fp AhnSfnep sblqZm Fmhcpw AdnncpXn\m Ahsc hnNmcnp Ahs\ ]cntZ\ Ignnp. XnsamsYtbmkns ]cntZ\sb hnip ]utemkv Xs teJ\n \ymboIcnpXv C{]ImcamWv. "sblqZmsc t\tSXnp Rm sblqZmp sblqZs\tmse Bbn; \ymb{]amWn Iogphsc t\tSXnp Rm \ymb{]amWn Iogph A Fnepw \ymb{]amWn Iogphp \ymb{]amWn Iogphs\tmse Bbn. ssZhnp \ymb{]amWanmh BImsX {InkvXphnp \ymb{]amWaph\mbncns \ymb{]amWanmhsc t\tSXnp Rm \ymb{]amWanmhp \ymb{]amWanmhs\tmse Bbn. _elo\msc t\tSXnp Rm _elo\p _elo\\mbn; GXphn[nepw Nnesc cntXnp Rm Fmhpw Fmambnop. kphntijn Hcp ]mfnbmtIXnp Rm kIehpw kphntijw \nanw sNpp.' (1 sImcny 9:21-23)

hnip ]utemkv ssIshv \In ssZhnsd Ir]mhcw Pzennv XnsamsYtbmkns\ XtfmSpIqsS tNv aXnbmb inWw \In. sbcpiteanse AsmkvXemcpw aqmcpw sImSpb {]amW ]mentXn\v ]WwtXmdpw sNp k`Isf klmbnm XntamsYtbmkns\ \ntbmKnp. As\ k`I hnizmkn Dsdbpw Fn Znhtk\ s]cpIpIbpw sNbvXp. ssZhip{iqjbvp \nti ASnb cv ]mkvd teJ\ hnip ]utemkv XntamsYtbmkn\v FgpXnbnpv.

]utemknt\bpw kwLtbpw \bnpXn ]cnipmmhns kPoh CSs]S \nccw Dmbncpp. Ctmgs Xqnbmb Gjyssa\dn hN\w {]kwKnpXn\nv Bmhv Ahsc hnenbncpp. AXn\m {^pKybnepw KemXy tZinepw IqSn kcnp, Ah apkybn Fn: _nYps\yp t]mIphm {ianp; tbiphnsd Bmthm Ahsc kXnn. _nYps\y hnip ]t{Xmknsbpw {]h\taJe Bbncpp. ]t{Xmkv Xs BZys teJ\w FgpXnbXv _nYps\ybnse hnizmknIsfqSn kwt_m[\ sNbvXpsImmWv. Ah ]Snmdv CuPnb ISens Xoctpw, ]ns apky ISp Xnctdnb XpdapJ \Kcamb t{Xmhmkn Fn. Cs Xpnbnse CuPnb ISens Ing XocmWv t{Xmhmkv. ]pcmX\ t{SmbnbpsS Ahinfn\nv 20 Intemao sXmWv CXv. t{Xmhmkv hsc ]utemkpw ioemkpw XntamsYtbmkpw BWv AhcpsS Iqn DmbncpXv. AXn\ptijw "R' F teJIs ]Z{]tbmKn\npw eqtmkpw AhcpsS Iqn tNp Fv A\pam\nmw.

astZm\y ki\w:
t{Xmhmkn shp s]utemkv, cm{Xnbn astZm\ymc\mtbmcp ]pcpj AcnsI \np: \o astZms\yp ISp hp Rsf klmbn Fp XtmSp At]npXmbn Hcp Zi\w Ip. Cu Zi\w Inp AhtcmSp kphntijw Adnbnm ssZhw Xsf hnfnncnpp Fp \nbnp, Ah DSs\ astZms\yp ]pdsSphm Xmdmbn. As\ Ah t{Xmhmkn \np I Ibdn t\sc ksam{Xmsbntepw ASp Znhkw \hs]menpw AhnsS \np ^nennbntepw bm{Xbmbn. t{XmhmkvamkntUmWnb kap{Z amn nXn sNp, 69 NXpc{i ssa am{Xw hnkvXoap Hcp {Kov Zzo]mbncpp ksams{Xkv [ Samothrace ]. hnip ]utemkv Xs cmw bm{Xbn Hcp cm{Xn AhnsS Nnehgnp. CuPnb ISens hS Xocp amkntUmWnbmbnse ^nenbnse Hcp XpdapJ ]Wambncpp \hs]men [ Neapolis ]. ^nennbn \nv 10 ssa AIsebmWv Cu ]Ww nXn sNpXv. ]utemkpw IqmfnIfpw Im Ipnb bqtdmnse BZys eambncpp CXv.

hS {Kokpw _m D]Zzo]pw hsc hym]npInSp Ncn{X {][m\yap Hcp {]tZiamWv atZm\y Asn amkntUmWnb [ Macedonia ]. B. C \memw \qmn alm\mb AeIvkmdpsS `cWImev temInse Ghpw henb km{mPyambn amkntUmWnb amdn. Xs ssk\nItk\sb insSppXn\mbn ^nenv cma {Kop cmPyfpsS Hcp s^Utdj Hm^v tImcnv Asn sl\nv eoKv cq]oIcnp. Ncn{Xn BZyambmWv an {Kov cmPyfpw Hscm cm{ob m]\ambn HnXv. Amev temIns Ghpw henb t]jy km{mPyw IogSm ^nenv cma kz]v\w Incpp. Fm B. C. 336 amkntUmWnbbpsS Xem\amb sFKmbnbn Xs kz]v\w kmmXvIcnsSmsX Atlw sImsp. Fm Ncn{Xnse Ghpw henb ssk\nI _pnIfnsemcmfmb Atlns aI AeIvkm Zn t{Kv A[nImcnsen, ]nXmhv Bcw`n tPmen ]qnbmn. amkntUmWnb km{mPyw {Kokn \nv CUy hsc hym]np. B.C. 323 Cs Cdmnse ]pcmX\ \Kcamb _m_ntemWnbmbn 32 hbkmbncp Atlw AmX ImcWfm acnp. {Kokns hSp]Snmdmbn _m D]Zzo]n Hcp sNdnb cmPyamb dnnv Hm^v amkntUmWnb 1991 bptKmmhnbbn \nv kzmXyw {]m]nXn\ptijw cq]oIcnsp.

^nenn t{XknbbpsS AXnnbnep astZm\ybnse Hcp {][m\ ]Whpw tdmam IpSntbdnmXpw Bb eamWv. B. C. 358 amkntUmWnbbnse cmPmhmb ^nenv cma Cu ]Ww FSpv hepXmn insSpn tImsImf \nnv Xs t]cn ]p\ \maIcWw sNbvXp. ]na A`qtKmfn {]tXyInv bqtdmv `qJޯn {InkvXob kphntijw {]kwKn BZys {]tZiambncpp ^nenn. ]utemkpw klkphntijIcpw Iqsd Znhkw B ]Wn Xmaknp. Hmw t{]jIbm{Xbn kcnncp ]Wfnsetmse ChnsS kntKmKv Dmbncpn.

]pghs kphntij tLmjWw:
ip Znhkw Ah tKm]pcnp ]pdtp t]mbn AhnsS {]m\mew Dmbncnpw Fp hnNmcnp ]pghp Ccpp; AhnsS IqSn h kv{XoItfmSp kphntijw kwkmcnp. Xpbssc ]Wmcnbpw cmw_cw hnphfpambn epZnbm Fp t]cp ssZh`bmtbmcp kv{Xo hN\w tIpsImncpp. s]utemkv kwkmcnXp {intXn\p Imhp AhfpsS lrZbw Xpdp. Ahfpw IpSpw_hpw kv\m\w Gtijw: "\n Fs Imhn hnizkvX Fp Fnbncnppshn Fsd hon hp ]mn' Fp At]np Ahsc \nnp. bqtdmv `qJޯn {InkvXpaXntev BZyambn ]cnh\w sNsXmbn IWmsSp hnipbmWv epZnbm. ]e {InkvXpaX hn`mKfpw epZnbmsb Hcp hnipbmbn IcpXn _lpam\npp.

Zpcmmhn\m {]hnv AhtfmSv BtemNnhtcmSv Ahyamb Dc \In hcm\ncnp Imcy Adnbm\p AhcpsS hyamb B{Kl ]qnIcnv Xr]vXnsSpnbncp Hcp shfnmSn s]Ipn sXcphn Ahsc FXntcp. Ah {]m\metp sNptm eWw ]dp bPam\mp hfsc em`w sImbvXpsImSpncp Cu a{hmZn\n s]Ipn Znhtk\ Ahsc ]npSv "Cu a\pjy AXypX\mb ssZhnsd Zmkm, cmamw \ntfmSp Adnbnph' Fp hnfnp]dp. Cs\ Ah ]e\m sNbvXtm s]utemkvv apjnp Xncnpt\mn Ahfnep `qXtmSp: "Ahsf hnpt]mIphm Rm tbip{InkvXphnsd \man \ntmSp Iev]npp' Fp ]dp. B \mgnIbn Xt Zpcmmhv Ahsf hnp t]mbn, Ah \ni_vZbmbn. XfpsS em`w sImp hym]mcns DdhnSw s]sv \tmbXpIv AhfpsS bPam\m s]utemkns\bpw ioemkns\bpw ]nSnp, s]mXp\oXn \Smp Nep {]amWnIfpsS ASptep henp sImpt]mbn, A[n]XnIfpsS apn \ndpn: "sblqZmcmb Cu a\pjy \psS ]Ws Ien, tdmamcmb \app AwKoIcnm\pw A\pkcnm\pw \ymbam BNmcsf {]kwKnpp' Fp ]dp. s]mXpP\hpw AhcpsS t\sc CfIn; A[n]XnI AhcpsS hkv{Xw ]dnpcnp tImsImp Ahsc ASnm Iev]np. Ahsc hfsc ASnn tijw XShn Bn. Ahsc Ghpw tamiamb IphmfnIfmbn IcpXn \ymbm[n]m AhcpsS {]Xnm_X hfsc Ii\amn. ImcmKrl{]amWntbmSp Ahsc kpcnXambn kqnm Iev]np. Cs\bp Iev]\ InpIbm Pbne AhcpsS XShv ITn\amn. Ahsc AIs Pbnentev (Ipd) hensdnv AhcpsS Im Ban Cp ]qn. ]utemkn\pw ioemkn\pw e`n _\ns Xo{hX bnscaym{]hmNI\v s_\ymao tKm]pcnepw tbmk^n\v ^dthms Imcm{Klnepw e`nXn\v kam\ambncpp.

PbnedpsS ]cnh\w:
Acm{Xnp s]utemkpw ioemkpw {]mnp ssZhs ]mSn kvXpXnp: XShpIm {inpsImncpp. s]sp Hcp henb `qIw Dmbn, ImcmKrlnsd ASnm\w Ipepn hmXn Hsbpw Xpdp, FmhcpsSbpw Ne AgnphoWp. ImcmKrl{]amWn DdpWp ImcmKrlnsd hmXnepI XpdncnpXp Inp Nem HmSntmbvfp Fp Dulnp hmfqcn Xsm sImphm `mhnp. Atm s]utemkv: \n\p Hcp tZmjhpw sNcpXp; R Fmhcpw ChnsS Dtm Fp Dds hnfnp ]dp. Ah shfnw tNmZnp AItp NmSn hnsdpwsImp s]utemknsdbpw ioemknsdbpw apn hoWp. Ahsc ]pdpsImp hp: bPam\mtc, c {]m]nm Rm Fp sNtWw Fp tNmZnp. Imhmb tbiphn hnizkn; Fm \obpw \nsd IpSpw_hpw c {]m]npw Fp Ah ]dp. ]ns Ah Imhnsd hN\w Aht\mSpw Ahsd honep FmhtcmSpw {]kwKnp. Ah cm{Xnbn, B \mgnIbn Xt, Ahsc Iqnsmp t]mbn AhcpsS apdnhpIsf IgpIn; Xm\pw X\nphscmhcpw XmaknbmsX kv\m\w Gp. ]ns Ahsc hon ssIsmp Ahp `Ww sImSpp, ssZhn hnizknXn hoSSw B\np.

t\cw ]petm A[n]XnI Hm^okdmsc Abp: "B a\pjyp t]mImw' Fp ]dbnp. ImcmKrl{]amWn Cu hm s]utemkns\ Adnbnp: \nsf hnbm A[n]XnI Bfbncnpp; BIbm kam[m\tmsS t]mIphn Fp ]dp. s]utemkv AhtcmSp: tdmas]ucmcmb Rsf Ah hnkvXmcw IqSmsX ]ckyambn ASnnp XShnemnbtm; Ctm clkyambn Rsf ]pdmppthm? As\ A; Ah Xt hp Rsf ]pdpsImp t]mIs Fp ]dp. Hm^okdm B hmp A[n]XnItfmSp t_m[nnmsd Ah tdmas]ucm Fp tIp `bsp sNp AhtcmSp \ hmp ]dp Ahsc ]pdp sImphp ]Ww hnp t]mtIWw Fp At]np. Ah XShp hnp epZnbbpsS hon sNp ktlmZcmsc Ip Bizknn tijw AhnsS \nv bm{Xbmbn.

]utemkv sXsem\nbn:
Ah Aw^ns]menknepw Asmtem\ybnepw IqSn ISp sXsem\nbn Fn. Cv ktems\v [ Saloneck ] Fp hnfnp sXsem\n {Koknse Hcp {][m\ \Kcambncpp. Aw^ns]menkv ^nennbv ASppw Asmtem\y sXsem\nbnSppw nXn sNbvXncp e Bbncpp. hnip ]utemkns anjy\dn bm{X ssZhoI am\ntin BbncpXn\m Ah ISpt]mtIXpw, hn{ian\v XmakntXpw, hN\w tLmjntXpw Bb {]tXyIw {]tXyIw e Fmw ]cnipmmhn\m Adnbnsncpp. Asmtem\y Av Cpcy [ Illyricum ] tZiw Fpw Adnbsncpp. Xm \phfm, Aphsc Hcnepw Innm tdmanse hnizmknIġv IsgpXptm Xm Imhns PtZiamb ]ekvXo\nse sbdpitew apX Av, bqtdmnse {Koknse Cpcy tZiw hsc Imhns kphntijhpw hlnv kcnp Fv {]Xn]mZnppv. "As\ Rm sbcpitew apX Cpcy tZitmfw Npnkcnp {InkvXphnsd kphntijtLmjWw ]qcnnncnpp.' (tdma 15:19)

sXsem\nbn sblqZmcpsS Hcp kntKmKv Dmbncpp. s]utemkv ]Xnhpt]mse AhcpsS ASp sNp aqp in XncpshgppIsf B[mcamn AhtcmSp kwkmcnp hmZnp. {InkvXp Iw A\p`hnbpw acnhcn \np Dbnsgptbpw sNtXp AhcpsS \ymb{]amWn FgpXs{]Imcw Bbncpp Fpw, X Ctm Adnbnp Cu tbip Xt {InkvXp Fpw sXfnbnp hnhcnpsImncpp. bmYmnXnI blqZmcn Nnecpw `nbp bh\mcn Hcp henb P\kaqlhpw {]apJ am\y kv{XoIfn At\Icpw hnizknp s]utemknt\mSpw ioemknt\mSpw tNp.

Fm hnizknm blqZm Akqbsv sXcphn an\sp \Sp Nne Zpmsc tNp ]pcpjmcs Cfn ]Wn Ielw Dmn. Ah Bphnfnv BfpIsf sXcphn Iqnhcpn. {]tIm]nXcmb P\qw AtmkvtXmem Xmaknncp hnizmknbmb bmtkmsd hoSp hfp B{Ianp Ahsc P\kaqln sImphcphm ]Xnbnp. Fm AtmkvtXmemsc Inmnv {]p_vZcmb P\kaqlw \h\mb bmtkms\bpw Nne ktlmZcmscbpw \Kcm[n]mcpsS ASptep CsgpsImp `cWm[nImcnItfmSv Ahsc IpsSpn. Ahv Xmakew \InbXv cmPyt{Zmlambn Ah sXncnnp. "ap efn Ipg krnh CXm ChntSbpw Fnbnbncnpp; Ahsc hnizknm Nnecpw Xbmdmbncnpp; Ah Fmw tbip F asmcph cmPmhp Fp ]dpsImp ssIkcpsS \nbaġp {]XnIqeambn {]hnpp' Fp \nehnfnp. Cu Bchhpw iImchpw tIv s]mXpP\hpw \Kcm[n]mcpw {`anp. Fm hnizmk]camb Cu ko hnjbn CSs]Sm aPnkvt{Sn\v a\nmbncpp. AXpsImv bmtkms\bpw kplrptfbpw Pmayw hmn hnbp.

]utemkv s_tcmshbn:
cm{XnbnXt, ktlmZcm s]utemkns\bpw ioemkns\bpw s_tcmshp ]dbp. hS {Koknse amkntUmWbn Cv shtdmb [ Veroia ] FdnbsSp Cu \Kcw sl\nIv, tdma ImeLn s_tcmsh Fv hnfnsncpp. Hfnkv ]Xn\v hSv, shanb ]X\ncIfpsS Ingp`mKp Hcp sNdnb \KcamWnXv. AhnsS Fn ]utemkpw ioemkpw XnsamsYtbmkpw sblqZmcpsS ]nbn t]mbn {InkvXob kphntijw {]kwKnp. s_tcmshm sXsem\nyscm Xpd a\phcpw \ymbt_m[aphcpw Bbncpp. Ah Imhmb tbip{InkvXphns kphntijns hN\w ]q Pm{KXtbmsS aphn[nIfnmsX kzoIcnpIbpw AhcpsS \ymb{]amW{]Imcw kphntijns kXyhpw Ir]bpsS D]m[nIfpw bpn]qw Zn\{Xn XncpshgppIsf ]cntim[nm XmdmIpIbpw sNbvXp. s_tcmshmcn ]ecpw, am\ycmb {]apJ bh\kv{XoIfnepw ]pcpjmcnepw At\Icpw Imhn hnizknp.

s]utemkv s_tcmhbnepw ssZhhN\w AdnbnXpw Ah AXv kzoIcnXpw sXsem\obnse {InkvXphns\ FXn AhnizmknIfmb, Akpbbpw tcmjhpw ]q sblqZm Adnp. Ah s_tcmhbnepw hp P\qs Cfn {`annv Iem]w BcwZnp, ]utemkn\pw ioemkn\pw XnsamsYtbmkn\pw {]kwKnm Ignbnsv Ddphcpn. Atm ktlmZcm s]utemkns\ kap{ZXoctp ]dbp; ioemkpw XnsamsYtbmkpw AhnsSt ]mp. s]utemknt\mSpIqsS hgnpW t]mbh Atls, {]ikvX \Kcamb AtY\tbmfw [ Athens ] sImpt]mbn; ioemkpw XnsamsYtbmkpw Ignbp thKn Xsd ASp AtY\bntev htcWw Fp ]utemkns \ntZiw hmn aSntmp. ]utemkv Xs IqmfnIsfqSmsX AtY\bn GIm\pw ZpJnX\pw Bbncpp.

s_scmhbn \npw ]utemkn\v hgnpW t]mbh sZmc\mb Kmsbmkpw sXtem\nymc\mb AcnkvXslmkpw Bbncpp. ]utemkv kzw Im kv\m\w sNbvX BZyIme hnizmknIfn Hcm Bbncpp Kmsbmkv. Pw sImv amkntUmWnbmcs\nepw Zbn nc Xmakw Bnbncpp. Zbvv ASp {]tifnepw Xs Peamb amkntUmWnbbnse sImcnnepw hnip ]utemkn\v BYnXyw hlnbpw kks`pw AXnYn kevmcw sNbvIbpw sNbvXncp alma\kvI\mbncpp Kmsbmkv. hni ]t{Xmkv Xs aqmas teJ\w FgpXnbncnpXv Kmtbmkns\ A`nkwt_m[\ sNbvXpsImmWv. "aq\mb Rm kXyn kvt\lnp {]nb Kmsbmknp FgpXpXp:' (3 tblm 1:1) {Kokn\npw Gjybnse Zbn hp ]m Kmtbmkv Z kztZinbmb XnsamsYsbmkns kplrpw klNmcnbpw BbncpncnWw. hfsc alXzchpw DX XXz DsmpXpamb ]utemkns tdmasgpXnb teJ\w FgpXsXv sImcnnse Kmtbmkns `h\nshmsWv IcpXsSpp. tdmasgpXnb teJ\n ]utemkv Kmtbmkns t]cn A`nhmZyw Anppapv. ]e efnepw ]utemkns kl{]hI\mbncp AcnkvXslmkv, ]utemkv tdmans XShpImc\mbncnptm sImsemkypw ^ntemtam\pw teJ\sagpXptm AtltmsSmw Dmbncpp. cp teJ\fnepw ]utemkv AcnkvXslmkns \man A`nhmZyw sNppv.

]utemkv AtY\bn:
temInse Ghpw ]gtadnb \Kcfnsemmb AtY\ [ Athens ] {Koknse Ghpw henb \Kchpw AXns Xem\hpamWv. kmlnXy ImbnI C\fn GYkn\v Hcp \o ]mccyapv. BZyIme ]mmXy \mKcnIXbpsS Hcp {][m\ ASbmfambn CXns\ IWmpp. ]pcmX\ {Kov XzNn B. C. Bdmw \qmn DSseSpp. aX]cam coXnbn temIs a\nemphm XzNn D]tbmKnp. {Kop XzNn AXns XpSw apX ]mmXy kwkvImcs kzm[o\nnpv. GYkv Hcp ]T\tI{ambncpp. GYknse XyNnIcpw tkm^nkvpIfpw {KoknepS\ofw kcnv ]Tnnncpp. XzNnbpsS BNmcymcmb tkm{Iokpw ttmbpw GYkpIm Bbncpp. alm\mb AeIvkm N{IhnbpsS Aym]I\mb Acnkvtmnens {]h\aew GYkmbncpp.

AhnSs XzNnInSbn apJw ImWnm etbm `btam CmsX ]utemkv ]nbnshp sblqZmtcmSpw ssZh`mtcmSpw, Nepw Xpd sXcphnepw Znhtk\ IhtcmSpw kphntijw {]kwKnv kw`mjnp t]mp. AtY\bn s]utemkv Xs IqmfnIġmbn Imncnptm \Kcn _nw_ \ndncnpXp Ip Akz\mbn. Ahsc kXyspdnp Adnhntep \bnphm Atlw B{Klnp. Fnqcycpw kvtXmbncpw [ Epicurean and Stoic ] Bb XXzm\nIfn Nne AtltmSv hmZnp. Nne DX`mhap NnI, "Cu hnSphmb Fp ]dhm t]mIpp' Fp ]dp ]cnlknp. ]utemkv tbiphns\bpw ]p\cpm\sbpw Ipdnv {]kwKnXpsImp, Ahv Adnhnm A\ytZhXIsf Ipdnv tLmjnppshv ap Nnev tXmn. Fm Fm AtY\cpw AhnsS hp ]mp ]ctZinIfpw ]pXnb Bibsf am{Xw ]dbpItbm tIġpItbm sNm Ahkcw Imncphcmbncpp. AXpsImv Nne NnI Atls ]cmainpXv aqeyhmsWv IcpXn ]utemkn\v {]`mjWw \Sm Ahkcw Dmn. Ah ]utemkns\ Actbm]Kpnt [ Areopagus ] sImpt]mbn, AhtcmSp kwkmcn, Ahp a\nemIm B A]q \hot\m]tZis hyamphm \nnp.

Actbm]K {]`mjWw:
s]utemkv Actbm]Katy \npsImp Xs {]`mjWw Bcw`np: AtY\]pcpjmtc, \n Fmnepw AXn`m Fp Rm ImWpp. Rm Npn\Sp \nfpsS ]qPmm\sf t\mptm "AmXtZhp' Fp Fgpp Hcp thZnp Ip; Fm \n AdnbmsX ]qPnpXpXt Rm \ntfmSp Adnbnpp. BImihpw `qanbpw AXnepXp Hsbpw Dmnb ssZhw kznpw `qanpw \mY\mIsImp ssIWnbmb t{Xfn hmkw sNpn. Fm PohPmeġpw Poh\pw izmkhpw kIehpw sImSpph BIbm hXnpw apph F t]mse am\pjssIIfm ip{iqj BhiysSpn. `qXen Fpw IpSnbncnm Ah Htc cn\nv \np a\pjyPmXnsb Hsbpw Dfhmn, \n Bcn \npw AIncnph\m, \mw Pohnbpw Ncnbpw Ccnbpw sNp B ssZhs Xn\Sp Isptam Fp shp Ahs\ At\zjntXn\p AhcpsS \nhmknp AXncpIfpw Imefpw \nbnp. As\ \nfpsS Ihnhcmcnepw Nne: "\mw Ahsd km\atm' Fp ]dncnpp. \mw ssZhnsd kXnIfmbXn\m ssZhw a\pjysd inev]hnZybpw kev]hpwsImp sImnop s]m, shn, Ip FnhtbmSp kZriw Fp \ncq]ntXn. Fm AdnbmbvabpsS Imesf ssZhw eyammsX Ctm FmbnSpw Fmhcpw am\kmcstSWsap a\pjytcmSp Iev]npp. Ah \ntbmKn a\pjy temIs \oXntbmsS \ymbwhn[np Hcp Znhkw \nbnncnpp; Ahs\ acnhcn \np Dbnsgptev]nXn\m Fmhpw AXnsd Ddp \Inbpancnpp.

acnhcpsS ]p\cpm\spdnp tInp Nne ]cnlknp; ap Nne: R CXns\n ]nsbpw \nsd {]kwKw tIġpw Fp ]dp. As\ s]utemkv AhnsS \np ]pdsp. Fm Nne BfpI Aht\mSp tNp hnizknp; hnizknhcn Actbm]Km\nbmb Znsbm\ptkymkpw Zacnkv Fp t]cptmcp kv{Xobpw ap Nnecpw Dmbncpp. AXn\ptijw hnip ]utemkv X\nsb GYkv hnv sImcnn Fn. GYkn\q ]Snmdv 48 ssa Zpcn nXnsNp tdma km{mPyns Hcp {]hniybmbncp sImcnv AJmbbpsS {][m\ \Kchpw sXvay {Koknse khpw at\mlchpamb {]tZiambncpp.

AIznemkpw {]nkvnbpw:
sImcnn ]utemkv, Ceybn [ Italy ] \np B CsSp hh\mbn s]msmkvImc [ Pontus ] AIznemkv Fp t]cptmcp sblqZs\bpw Ahsd `mcy {]nkvnsbbpw Ipapn. Xpnbnse Cs Ing IcnS {]tZiv nXnsNp sX Xocv nXn sNbvXncp Hcp {]tZiambncpp s]msmkv. NnXdntmb blqZmcn ]ecpw B ev Xmaknncpp Fv hnip ]t{Xmkv olm Xs teJ\n kmnppv. "tbip{InkvXphnsd AsmkvXe\mb ]s{Xmkv s]msmknepw KemXybnepw IsZmIybnepw Bkybnepw _nYp\ybnepw NnXdnmp ]ctZinIfpw' (1 ]s{Xmkv 1:1) tdmamm shdpncp blqZmscmw Cen hnpt]mIWsap susZymkv kok N{IhnbpsS Ahkm\s Dchn{]ImcamWv AIznemkn\pw {]nkvnbvpw Cen hnp t]mtIn hXv. A. D. 41 apX 54 hsc km{mPyw `cnncp N{Ihn Bbncpp Xn_cnbmkv susZymkv kok. Cenp ]pdp P\n BZys tdma N{Ihn Bbncpp Atlw. Hcp {InkvXym\n BsWnepw AIznemkns\ Hcp blqZ\mbncpXn\m \mSpISn; hnPmXnbv Hcp blqZ\pw {InkvXym\nbpw Xn thXncndnbm Ignbm hn[n Bibpgw \ne\nncpp. AIznemkv tbiphns Abs Fgp]Xv injymcn HcmfmsWv ]mccyw hnizknpp. tdman Xmaknncp BZyIme ]cnhIcn Hcmfmb {]nkvn blqZm ]mccyap Hcp kv{Xo Bbncpp.

sXmgn HmIsImp ]utemkv AhtcmSp IqsS Xmaknv tPmen sNbvXp hp; AhcpsS sXmgn IqSmcWnbmbncpp [ Tent making ]. Fm iv\mfpIfn Ah ]nbn kwhmZnp \ymbhmZw \SpIbpw sblqZmscbpw bh\mscbpw A\p\bnnpIbpw sNbvXp. Fm ioemkpw XnsamsYtbmkpw amkntUmWnbmbn \nv tImcnn Xncnsn ]utemkns\ klmbnv ssII insSpnbtXmsS ]utemkv hopw ]qkab kphntij hN\ tLmjWn kzbw Anp. AIznemknsbpw {]nkvnbpsSbpw kmnyw BZyIme ss{IkvXh k`Isf insSpn. AhtcmSv ISsncnpXns AwKoImcnepw {]iwkbnepw ]utemkv DZmc\mbncpp. Xs "{InkvXptbiphn kl{]hI' FmWv Ahsc hntijnnXv. an teJ\fnepw Ahsc {]Ionv ]cmainppv. Nne ssZhimkv{X ]nXm {]nkvnsb F{_mbp teJ\ns AmX cNbnXmhmbn IWmppsnepw hnip ]utemkmWv Cu teJ\ns cNbnXmshv Imt\m\nIambn ncoIcnnpv.

sXsem\nIy teJ\w:
sImcnn hnip ]utemkv sXsem\nIyv BZys teJ\w FgpXn. ssZhnI {]tNmZ\m Xm FgpXnb BZys teJ\ambncpp CXv. XnsamsYsbmkpw ioemkpw Atls klmbnp Fp am{Xa, Ahsc klcNbnXmfmbn tcJsSpnbnpapv. sXsem\nIybn Imhn hnizkn Ipsd blqZmcpw [mcmfw {KopImcpw tN hyhm]nXamb Hcp k` thcpdncpp. XnsamsYsbmkpw ioemkpw sXsem\nIybn\npw Xncnsn AhnSs k`bnse ktlmZcmcpsS hnizmksbpw kvt\lsbpw ]n ]dIbpw ]utemkns\ hopw ImWWsap AhcpsS AXoh hmsbn Adnbnbpw sNbvXtm ]utemkv sXsem\nIyp Xs Hmas teJ\w FgpXm {]tNmZnX\mbn. Imhn \n{Z {]m]nh Dbsgpt\psapw, Ah Poht\mSncnphtcmsSmw Imhnss cmw hchn Ahs\ BImin FXntcpsapw Hmw teJ\n ]utemkv {]t_m[nnp. Fm Imhv DSXs Xncnphcpsav Ah sXmbn a\knemn. Xs Hmas teJ\w aqeapmb Ccw sXnmcWI XncppXn\pthn A[nIw XmaknbmsX Atlw AtX k`bvp cmas teJ\hpw FgpXn. Imhns cmw hchn\p appmtI, s]mXphmb hnizmkXymKw [General Apostacy], FXn{InkvXphns hchv [Revelation of AntiChrist] Fo cp kp{][m\ Imcysfpdnv Ahsc DZvt_m[nnp. IqSmsX, ImSpIġp Iognep AhcpsS Bizmkspdnpw ISaIfpsS DZvt_m[\sbpw amZi\tbpw Ipdnv Ahsc HmsSpn.

Fm sImcnnse AhnizmknIfmb blqZm kphntijs FXnbpw Zpjnbpw sNbvXtm Imhv InXps]mse, Ac{]Imcw, ]utemkv hkv{Xw IpSp, Imense s]mSn Xn PmXnIfpsS ASptev Xncnp. Wns AYnXnI hncpn\v hcmXncptm sXcphoYnIfn \nv BfpIsf hnfnp tNp Imhns D]a A\zambn. Atlw AhnSw hnp kntKmKn\p sXmcnsI Xmaknncp Xosmkv bpskvXmkv F Hcp ssZh`sd hon sNp kphntijw Adnbnp. ]n{]amWnbmb {Inkvs]mkv Xsd kIe IpSpw_tmSpw IqsS Imhn hnizknp; IqSmsX sImcnycn At\I hN\w tIp hnizknp kv\m\w Gp. sImcnn Xs thebn XpScm\p Hcp cm{XnZi\w ]utemkns\ t{]mmlnnp. hnfnsSph At\I B \Kcnepv Fpw Imhv XtmSpIqsS Dv Fpw D Ddv ]utemkn\v Duw ]Ip. As\ Atlw Hcmpw Bdp amkhpw AhcpsS CSbn ssZhhN\w D]tZinpsImp Xmaknp.

KemXy teJ\w:
epkv{Xbn shv XnsamsYtbmkn\v ssIshp \In Xti k`Iġv ip{iqj sNm Atls \nbantijw ]utemkpw ioemkpw {^pKybnepw KemXy tZifnepw IqSn kcnv kphntijw {]kwKnv k`I m]np. PqUmbnk thZhn]coXnIfpsS ]TnnepIfm KemXytZifnse k`bvv thcpdn. Cu Aip`hm ]utemkns ImXpIfn Fnbtm Atlw Akz\qw {]tIm]nX\pw Bbn; KemXyp teJ\sagpXn. teJ\sagpXnb ehpw kabhpw hya. IsgppImcpsS [ Amanuensis ] klmbanmsX kz ssImv henb Acn FgpXnb teJ\amWv KemXyteJ\w. "t\mphn: F{X henb Acambn Rm \nġp kz ssIsImpXt FgpXnbncnpp.' (KemXy 6:11) ap an teJ\fpw IsgppImcpsS [ Amanuensis ] klmbtmsS BWv FgpXnbnpXv. kz ssIsImv FgpXptm henb Acn FgpXn Fp ]dbptm, sNdnb Acn FgpXpXn\pw hmbnpXn\pw ]utemkn\v ImgvNpdhv Dmbncpp Fpw, AXmWv Xs icocnse iqew Fpw ]e thZimkv{X ]nXmcpw IcpXppv. "shfnmSpIfpsS B[nIym Rm AXnbmbn \nKfnp t]mImXncnm F\np PUn Hcp iqew Xncnpp; Rm \nKfnp t]mImXncntXnp Fs Ipphm kmmsd ZqXs\ Xt. AXp Fshnp \otXnp Rm aqp hw Imhnt\mSp At]np. Ah FtmSp: Fsd Ir] \n\p aXn; Fsd in _elo\Xbn XnIphcpp Fp ]dp. BIbm {InkvXphnsd in Fsdta BhkntXnp Rm AXnktmjtmsS Fsd _elo\XIfn {]iwknpw.' (2 sImcny 12:79)

susZymkv hmgvNbpsS GItZiw Ahkm\n, ]pXpXmbn cq]nIcn AJmb sk\tmdnb {]hiybpsS D]tZmhmbn, tdma sk\dmbncp eqknbkv Pq\nbkv Kntbm Ahtcm[nX\mbn. ]utemkv AsmkvtXmes\Xnsc blqZm Dbn Btcm]Ww BZytIhnbn Xs hmZw tIġmsX Kntbm Xnfp. hN\sbpw \masfbpw AhcpsS \ymb{]amWsbpw kw_np XkwKXnIġv \ymbm[n]Xn BIphm X\np a\n Fp Kntbm Xop ]dp, \ymbmk\n \np Ahsc ]pdmn. ]n {]amWnbmb tkmkvsXt\kns\ ]nSnp \ymbmk\nsd apn shp Ah ASnp; CXp Hpw Kntbm Iqmnbn. Cu Ahkcn Atlns s]cpamw blqZ kwthZ\aXtbmSp AhKW\bpw BZyImefn {InkvXpaXtmSp tdma DtZymKcpsS \njv] at\m`mhhpw BWv ImWnpXv. Kntbms Imemh[n A.D. 5152 ImeLambn BWvv IWmsSpXv.

s]utemkv Ipdp\m IqSn AhnsS Xmakntijw ktlmZcmtcmSp bm{X ]dnp, X\np Hcp t\ DmbncpXn\m sIw{Ibbn shp blqZ BNmca\pkcnv Xe sucw sNnnp {]nkvntbmSpw AIznemknt\mSpw IqsS I Ibdn kpdnbbntep ]pdsp. Fs^tkmkn Fn Ahsc AhnsS hnp ]ncnp. Fs^tkmkv Gjyssa\dnse Hcp alm\Kchpw XpdapJ ]Whpambncpp. Ctm B[p\nI XpnbpsS `mKamWv. s]utemkv ]nbn sNp sblqZmtcmSp kw`mjnp. IpsdqsS XmakntWw Fp Ah At]nnp Ah kXnmsX: ssZhlnXapsn Rm \nfpsS ASp aSnhcpw Fp ]dp hnShmn Fs^skmkn \np Iamw, ssIkcybn hndn, sbcpitean Hcp {lkz ki\w \Sn, k`sb A`nhmZyw sNbvXtijw Asmybntep t]mbn.

FIRST MISSIONARY JOURNEY OF APOSTLE ST. PAUL

THIRD MISSIONARY JOURNEY OF APOSTLE ST. PAUL

CHRISTIAN EDUCATION ARTICLES MALAYALAM

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