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THIRD MISSIONARY JOURNEY OF APOSTLE ST. PAUL
hnip ]utemkv AsmkvtXmes aqmw anjy\dn bm{X

By Dr. Rajan Mathew

AtymIybn GXm\pw amk hn{iantijw hnip ]utemkv Xs aqmas anjy\dn bm{X Bcw`np. Cu bm{Xbn Atlw {][m\ambpw Gjyssa\dntev bm{X sNbvXp. KemXy, {^pKy Fn {]tZifneqsS Atlw XpSbmbn kcnv AhnSs k`Isf Ddnv insSpn.

AeIvkm{nbmbn \np Asmtmkv:
AIznemkpw {]nkvnbpw Fs^skmkn anjy tkh\ sNpXn\nSbn P\\w sImv AeIvkm{nbmc\mb Asmtmkv F Hcp blqZ Fs^skmkn Fn. hmssKz`hhpw XncpshgppIfn kmayhpap Asmtmkv Imhnsd amn D]tZiw e`nh Bbncpp; tbmlmsd kv\m\spdnp am{Xw Adnncpp Fnepw Bmhn Fcnhph\mIbm Atlw tbiphnsd hkvXpX kqvaambn {]kvXmhnbpw D]tZinbpw sNbvXp. kphntijn XovWX Dmbncp Asmtmkv kntKmKn tbiphns\pdnp Imcy {]mKytmsSbpw, IrXyambpw, ss[cytmsSbpw ]Tnnv {]kwKnp XpSn. AIznemkpw {]nkvnbpw Asmtmknsd {]kwKw tImsd Atls kzoIcnv ssZhnsd amw IqSpX kv]ambpw IrXyambpw Atlns\ ]Tnnv sXfnbnp sImSpp, kphntij {]h\n\v Atls kamn. Fs^skmknse k`bpsS kmy{]Imcw injym Atls kzmKXw sNpIbpw t{]mmlnnpIbpw sNbvXp. Asmtmkv AJmbbntep t]mIphm Cntm ktlmZcm Atls Dmlnnbpw Atls ssIsmtXnp AhnSs injymp FgpXpIbpw sNbvXp; AhnsS Fnbmsd Asmtmkv ssZhIr]bn hnizknhp hfsc {]tbmP\ambnop. tbip Xt {InkvXp Fp Asmtmkv XncpshgppIfm sXfnbnp iambn sblqZmcpsS FXnhmZs ]ckyambn Jnp Ifp.

Gjybnse ]Snmd Xpnbnse kamb Hcp tdma {]hniybmbncpp Fs^skmkv. ]pcmX\ temInse Ggv ApXfn Hmb almb Asankv am_n t{Xambncpp Fs^skmkns \mKcnI A`nam\w. Asankv tZhnbpsS t{Xw Hcp hym]mc tI{hpw hcpam\ amhpw Bbncpp. temIns hnhn[ `mKfn \np XomSI Bcm[Iv hn{Kl hnpXneqsS \Kcnse hyhkmbnI hfscb[nIw em`w t\Snbncpp.

Asmtmkv sImcnn Bbncnptm s]utemkv D{]tZifn IqSn kcnp cmw XhW Fs^tkmkn aSn Fn. Fs^tkmknse injymv ]cnipmmhns\pdnv Adnbnmbncpp. tbmlmsd kv\m\w Bbncpp Ah GncpXv. tbmlm am\kmc kv\m\w am{Xsa Ignnncppp Fpw; Xsd ]nmse hcph\mb tbiphn hnizkntWw Fp tbmlm P\tmSp ]dp Fpw s]utemkv Ahsc ]Tnnv a\knemnsmSpp. ]{tmfw ]pcpjm Imhmb tbiphnsd \man kv\m\w Gp. s]utemkv AhcpsSta ssIshtm ]cnipmmhp AhcpsSta hp Ah A\y`mjIfn kwkmcnbpw {]hNnbpw sNbvXp.

]utemkv aqp amktmfw Fs^skmknse blqZmcpsS kntKmKn ssZhcmPyspdnv {]mKytmsS {]kwKnpt]mp. Fm blqZmcpsS hntZzjhpw Zpjnpw ITn\ambtm Atlw tbiphn hnizknncp injymsc thXncnv AhnsS \nv t]mbn. ]noSv cp hjtmfw Xpdsmknsd ]mTimebn Znhkhpw blqZmtcbpw Gjybnse {KopImtcbpw ]Tnnm Bcw`np. As\ [mcmfw P\ Imhnsd hN\w tIĸm CSbmbn. ssZhw s]utemkv apJmcw Akm[mcWbmb ApXfpw hocy{]hrnIfpw sNnbm, Atlns icocn\nv dqamepw Dcobhpw tcmKnIfpsSta sImphnSpIbpw AXpaqew tcmKnIġv kuJyw e`nbpw, Zpcmm ]pdsp t]mIpIbpw sNbvXp.

Fm Fs^skmkv ]pdPmXob ]ptcmlnXm, {`mm, PmehnZym, hnipIfmbn IcpXsSp thiyI, hymP B ssZh apXembhcpsS Hcp ktXambncpp. Ccnep BfpIfpsS Hcp henb tiJcw Fs^skmkn Dmbncpp. IqSmsX temIsmSpap XomSIcpsS BXntYbXzhpw Fs^skmkv \Kcw hlnncpp. AXpsImv Fs^skmknse kphntijoIcWw Hcp BXynI shphnfnbmbn ]utemkn\v A\p`hsp. sImcnysgpXnb Hmas In X\np BmZw Atlw ]p shbvppv. "F\np henbXpw k^ehpamtbmcp hmXn Xpdncnpp; FXncmfnIfpw ]e Dp.' (1 sImcny 16:9)

Hmw sImcny teJ\w:
Hmw sImcny teJ\w Fs^skmkn \nmWv FgpXnbsXv hnizknsSpp. Cu teJ\ns cNbnXmhv ]utemkpw klcNbnXmhv tkmkvXnt\mkpw BWv. ]utemkv Fs^skmkn Xmaknp kabmWv sImcny kaqln \nehnencp Akqb, sshcmKyw, A[mnI s]cpamw apXemb, {InkvXobXbvv \ncm {]hWXIsfpdnp Akzamb hm Atln\v e`npXv. IqSmsX sImcny ]utemkn\b In hnhmlw, hn{KlmnX amwkw Ign apXemb \nch[n Imcyfn hyX \Im k` Bhiysncpp. sImcny {InkvXob kaqln Dbph Ccw hnhn[ {]iv\sf teJ\n ]cmainbpw ]cnlmc am \ntinbpw sNpp. ]utemkv Xs AtmkvtXmeXztmSp shphnfnIsfpdnp {]iv\s A`nkwt_m[\ sNpIbpw {InkvXphn \np shfnsSpeneqsSbmWv X\nv CXv e`nsXv AhImisSpIbpw sNpp. "ssZthm tbip{InkvXphnsd AsmkvXe\mbn hnfns s]utemkpw ktlmZc\mb tkmkvsXt\kpw' F XpS A`nhmZyw ]utemkns AtmkvtXmenI AhImihmZns \nbakm[pXsb insSppp.

tZimcnIfmbn \Sp a{hmZnIfmb Nne sblqZm Zpcmmsf ]pdmpp F hymtP\ ]e efnepw Npn\Sv, "s]utemkv {]kwKnp tbiphnsd \man Rm \ntfmSp BWbnSpp' Fp ]dp tbiphnsd \maw sNmphm Xp\np. Ah alm]ptcmlnX\mb kvthm F Hcp sblqZsd Ggp ]p{Xm Bbncpp. Fm Zpcmmhp AhtcmSp: "tbiphns\ Rm Adnbpp; s]utemkns\bpw ]cnNbapp; Fm \n B?' Fp tNmZnp. DSs\ Zpcmmhp a\pjy AhcpsSta NmSn hoWv Ahsc Ccphscbpw IogSn Pbnbm a{hmZnI \cpw apdnthhcpambn B hon \np HmSntmbn. CXp Fs^skmkn ]mp kIe sblqZmcpw bh\mcpw Adnp: Ahp Fmw `bw Bbn, Imhmb tbiphnsd \maw alnasp. hnizknhcn At\Icpw hp XfpsS sXmb {]hrnIsf Gp ]dp ]m]np. p{Z{]tbmKw sNbvXncp ]ecpw XfpsS AXn\mbncw shnmtimfw hne hcp a{hmZ ]pkvXI NppIfp. CXn\ptijw s]utemkv astZm\ybnepw AJmbbnepw IqSn ISp sbcpiteantepw AhnsS \nv tdmantepw t]mtIWw Fp a\n B{Klnp. Fnepw Xs klip{iqIcmb XnsamsYsbmkns\bpw, FcskvXmkns\bpw astZm\ybntep Abnp Xm Ipsdmew IqSn Fs^skmkn Xmaknp.

sImcnyp cmw teJ\w:
Xs at\mlnXw t]mse amkntUmWnbbpw {Kokpw sImcnpw kinm kmyamsX htXmsS ]utemkv sImcnyp cmas teJ\w FgpXn. BZyteJ\w FgpXn GItZiw Hcp hjw Ign tijamWv cmas teJ\w FgpXnbXv. hfsc Ihpw at\mhyk\hpw Dmbnp hfsc Ip\otcmSpIqsS FgpXnb teJ\amWv CXv. Cu teJ\ns cN\ AtmkvsXme\mb ]utemkpw klcNbnXmhv XnsamsYtbmkpw BWv. Fm teJ\w FgpXnb etam kabtam hya. Cu teJ\w sImcny k`tbbpw Cs {Koknse Nppap AJmbbnse {InkvXym\nIsfbpw A`nkwt_m[\ sNpp. AhnizmknIfpambn CS]gIpXns\Xnsc Atlw sImcnyv Pm{KX \Ipp. sbcpiteanse hnipmcpsS klmbn\p [hpw Iqmbvabpw KemXyk` sNbvX amXrIbn sImcnyk`bpw {]m]vXnt]mse kzta[bmbn sNWsav Atlw A`ynpp.

Asankv t{Xnse Iem]w:
shnsImp Asankv tZhnbpsS t{Xcq]sf hmpmnbncp sZta{Xnsbmkv F Xm Xs sXmgnemfnIġv [mcmfw ]Ww. Dmn sImSpncpp. Fm s]utemkv, "Im XoXp tZhm A' Fp Gjy apgph\pw {]tXyInv Fs^skmknepw P\sf ]TnnncpXpsImv XfpsS hym]mcw \sSpXns\pdnv Ah BimIpecmbn. hn{Kl hn\bnse CSnhns\pdnv N sNm sZta{Xnsbmkv klhym]mcnIfpsSbpw sXmgnemfnIfptSbpw Hcp tbmKw hnfnpIqn. IqSmsX, ]utemkns \ho\ kphntijtLmjWw ImcWw Asankv t{Xns {]m[m\yw \amIpXpw, Gjy apgph\pw Bcm[np almtZhnbpsS amlmyw HSpntmIpXpw sZta{Xnsbmkv Dundp. tbmKn Hcp Iem]w s]mnpdsp. \Kcw apgph Bibpgnembn. P\samw Xntbdntev t{Im[w \ndhcmbn ]mv Ibdn, Fs^kycpsS Asankv altZhnv Pbv hnfnv Bchw apgn. astZm\ybn\npw s]utemknsd Iqpbm{Xmcmbn h Kmsbmkns\bpw, AcnkvXslmkns\bpw cwKetp henngp. s]utemkv P\kaqln sNphm `mhntm injymcpw kvt\lnXcpw Atls XSp. s]mXpP\ġv icnbmb kwKXnsbm ImcWsam FmsWv a\nembncppan. sblqZm aptmp Dnsmp h AeIvkcns\ ]pcpjmcn Nne kwkmcnm Dmlnnp; AeIvk BwKyw Imn P\kaqltmSp kwkmcnm `mhntm, Ah sblqZ Fp AdnbpS cp aWnq kabtmfw Fmhcpw IqSn GI i_vZtmsS Fs^kycpsS Asankv almtZhnp Pbv hnfnv BpsImncpp. kphntijItcm AhcpsS ]TnnepItfm tZhntm t{Xnt\m Hcp D]{Zhpw hcpnbnn Fp ]dv \Kck` tab Iem]ImcnIsf \ni_vZcmn. bpnclnXamb Bt{Imin\pw \nbahncpamb ktf\n\pw tab P\qs A]e]np. Iem]w {IatSmbn XpSm {]XyLmXfpmIpsav apdnbnv \In. DS Xs Fmhcpw ]nncnp ]ncnpt]mbn. ]utemkv aqp hjtmfw Fs^skmkn Xmaknv kphntij the sNbvXp. ]utemkv \Kcw hnv amkntUmWnbbntev bm{Xbmbn. aqpamkw {Kokn {]tXyInpw sImcnn Xmaknp.

tdmav FgpXnb teJ\w:
hnip ]utemkns sImcnntep hopap Cu ki\ kabmWv tdmap teJ\w FgpXnbXv. ]utemkns teJ\fn Ghpw ssZLytadnbXmWv ]pXnb\nbanse teJ\fn BZyambn tNncnp tdmam teJ\w. tbip{InkvXphnep hnizmkneqsS ssZhIr]bm blqZcptSbpw hnPmXnbcptSbpw, Hcpt]mse, \oXoIcWnsbpw cbptSbpw kphntijw {]tLmjnp Cu teJ\w ssIImcyw sNp hnjbns km{Xbpw BUw`chpw hb\msc ]pfInXcmpIbpw ]nXmhmw ssZhns \oXnbpw kvt\lhpw shfnsSppIbpw sNpp. ]utemkv sImcnn Kmbkns `h\n AYnXnbmbn XmaknptmgmWv sXpkv [Tertius] F Xs IsgppImcs\smv [Amanuensis] Cu teJ\w FgpXnnsXv IcpXsSpp. \Kcns s]mXpacmav hIpv InjWdpw hnhn[ kabfn \Kc {Sjdmdpambncp [City Treasurer] FcskvXmkv [Erastus] teJ\sagpXptm ]utemknt\msSmw Dmbncpp.

teJ\sagpXp kabv ]utemkv tdmw kinnn. kvs]bn\n t]mIWsapw hgnbn tdman CdWsapw Atlw AXnbmbn B{Klnncpp. AtmkvsXmemcpsS Imev tdman blqZm Xmakapmbncpp. Ahcn {InkvXphn hnizknh XfpsS hnizmkw Xtinbv ssIamdpIbpw sNbvXp. bmsXmcp ASbmffpw ApXfpw ImWmsXbpw, AsmkvXemscsbmpw apJZmhn ImWmsXbpw tdmamm {InkvXob hnizmkw kzoIcnXv FpsImpw {InkvXptbiphn hfsc {]iwk\obamWv. ]utemkv tdmanse {InkvXym\nIfpsS Fm kmlNcyfpw a\knemn kzbw ]cnNbsncpp. At\I hjw tdman Xmaknncp AIznemkpw {]nkvnbpw ]utemkn\v tdmanse k`bpsS kqvaamb Hcp Nn{Xw hcpImnbnpmhmw. A. D. 54 susZymkv kok acn tijw N{Ihnbmbn Ahtcm[nX\mb \otdm N{Ihn blqZmv Cenbnepmbncp \ntcm[\w ]nhenncpp. AXn {]Imcw AIznemkpw {]nkvnbpw tdmantev Xncnsb t]mbncpp. ]utemkv teJ\n Ahv A`nhmZyw Anppv. AIznemkpw {]nkvnbpw AhcpsS `h\n Hcp k` \Snbncpp.

t{Xmhmkn acn bqnsmkns\ Pohnnpp:
sImcnn \npw ]pdsSptmtgpw ]utemkns IqsS Hcp henb anjy\dn kwLw Dmbncpp. s_tcmhbnse ]psdmknsd aI tkm]s{Xmkpw, ]utemkn\v hgnpWbmbn s_tcmhbn \npw GYkntep h sXtem\nycmb AcnkvXslmkpw sZmc\mb Kmsbmkpw, skpsmkpw, XnsamsYsbmkpw Gjymcmb Xplnsmkpw s{Xm^ntamkpw t\cs Xs t{Xmhmkntev bm{Xbmbn. s]klm s]cp\mfn\ptijw ]utemkpw eqtmkpw ^nennbn\nv I Ibdn Ap Znhkn\pn t{Xmhmkn kwLns\msan. Cu Imeambtmtgpw {InkvXob kaqlns hnip Znhkw im]Xv Zn\amb i\nbmgvNbn\nv BZyZn\amb RbdmgvNbntev amdnbncpp. t{Xmhmkn RbdmgvN hnip Ipm\ Anm ]utemkv Fgp Znhkw Xmaknp. AXn\ptijw ASp Znhkw t]mIm Dtinv ]utemkv AhtcmSv {]kwKnp, ]mXnchscbpw {]kwKw \on. [mcmfw hnfpIfpmbncp, Ah IqSnbncp, B henb _lp\ne amfnIbpsS InfnhmXn Ccpp bqnsmkv F sbuh\mc KmV\n{Z ]nSnp. s]utemkv hfsc t\cw kw`mjnbm \n{Zmhi\mbn aqmw \nebn \np Xmsg hoWp; Ahs\ acnh\mbn FSppsImp hp. s]utemkv Cdnsp Ahsdta hoWp XgpIn {`antm; Ahsd {]mW Ah\n Dp Fp ]dp Ahs\ Pohnnp. Fnv ]utemkv hopw apIfntephv Aw \pdpn {]`mXw hsc {]kwKntijw bm{Xbmbn. AXyw hnizkvX\pw, kXyk\pw, Atbw hnizk\obamb kqva Ncn{XImc\pw, sXmgnen Hcp tUmIvSdpamb teJI, hnip eqtmk,v Xs IpsImv I Hcp ZrIvkmn hnhcWambmWv Cu kw`hs tcJsSpnpXv.

t{Xmhmkn \npw tbcpiteanteq bm{X:
kwLw Fmw I Ibdn Asmkntep Xncnp. ]utemkv am{Xw thKn Im\Sbmbn Asmkn AhtcmsSmw Fn. AhnsS \npw Fmhcpw IqSn anXpte\ [ Mitylene ] ISv ]ns Znhkw Jnsbmkv [ Chios ] Zzo]nsd FXnsc Fn, ASp Znhkw kmsamkv Zzo]n Cdn. ]ntp antesmkn Fn. kmysan s]ntmkvXn s]cp\mfn\v tbcpitean Fm B{KlnncpXpsImv Fs^skmkn IbdmsX t]mIm Xocpam\np. antesmkn \np Atlw Fs^skmkntep Bfbp k`bnse aqmsc hcpn. tbmKn Atlw Ahv hniZamb CSb \nti \In; hcm\ncnp thZho]coXsfnbpw apdnbnp \In. tbcpitean X\npmtbmhp _\sfpdnpw IXIsfpdnpw Ahv kpN\ \In, Hcp ]s Ah Xs apJw C\nbpw ImWpIbn F apdnbnpw sImSpp. Atlw appIpn FmhtcmSpw IqSn {]mnp. CXp tIv Ah Ghpw Zp:Jnp Dds Icv Atls Npw_np, Itemfw AtltmSp IqsS sNv bm{Xbbp. antesmknse IotcmsSbp bm{X ]dnen\ptijw ]utemkpw Iqcpw ]ekvXo\ntep bm{XbpsS Ahkm\ Ln\mbn I Ibdn.

ssIkcybn ^nensmkns `h\n:
{]ikvXamb {Kop Zzo]mb tImkv, scmsZmkv, sseknbmbnse Hcp {]apJ XpdapJ ]Wamb ]Xmc hgn, ssk{]kv Zzo]ns AcnIn IqSn, s^mbv\ojy XpdapJamb tkmcn [ Tyre ] hndn; Ien\v Ncv Cdtn hXn\m Ggp Znhkw AhnsS, injymsc Isn AhtcmSpIqsS Xmaknp. Ah s]utemknt\mSp sbcqitean t]mIcpXp Fp Bmhn\m ]dp. AhnSs Xmakw Ignv Ah hnpt]mIptm Fmhcpw kv{XoIfpw IpnIfpambn ]Wnp ]pdtmfw hp IScbn appIpn {]mnp Xn bm{X ]dv aSntmbn. cp Znhkw Ignv ssIkcybn Fn, Fgp simmcn Hcmfmb ^nensmkv F kphntijIsd hon sNp Aht\mSp IqsS Xmaknp. FtXym]ymc\mb js\ kv\m\sSpnbtijw ssIkcybn Xmakambncp ^nensmkn\v {]hmNIcmb \mev ]p{Xnam Dmbncpp. AXn\nSbv AKm_kv F Hcp {]hmNI sblqZybn \np hp; s]utemknsd Ac FSpp Xsd ssIImepIsf sIn: Cu AcbpsS DSas\ sblqZm sbcqitean Cs\ sIn PmXnIfpsS In Gev]npw Fp ]cnipmmhp ]dbpp Fp ]dp. CXp tInv sbcqitean t]mIcpXp Fp AhnSpIm Fmw s]utemknt\mSp At]np. ]utemkv AXv kXnmsX "Imhnsd Cw \Ss' Fp ]dp, ssIkcybnse Nne injymtcmSpIqsS tbcpiteantev bm{Xbmbn. tbcpitean, Ips{]mkvImc\mb av\mtkm F Hcp ]gb injys hon AXnYnIfmbn ]mpXn\p {IaoIcW sNbvXncpp.

]utemkv sbcqitean:
s]nsmkvXn s]cp\mfn sbcpiteansenb ]utemknt\bpw IqmfnItfbpw sbcqiteanse ktlmZcm lmhambn kzmKXw sNbvXp, Dujvafambn kzoIcnp. A\cw tbcpiteanse _njmbncp bmtm_ns ASppt]mbn, k`mtbmKn aqmsc A`nhmZyw sNbvXp; Xsd ip{iqjbm ssZhw PmXnIfpsS CSbn sNnXp Hmtcmmbn hnhcnp ]dp. Ah tIp ssZhs alXzsSpn. Gjy, bqtdm]y k`Ifn \nv tiJcn ZpcnXmizmk klmbw ]utemkv ssIamdn. tamisb Dt]np Ifbphm\pw, asf ]cntZ\ sNcpXp Fpw PmXnIfpsS CSbnep kIe sblqZmtcmSpw ]utemkv D]tZinpp Fp At\Imbncw hcp \ymb{]amWXev]cmcmb sbcpiteanse sblqZ hnizknIfpsS CSbn sXmb [mcW \ne \nncpp. AXpsImv blqZ BNmc]camb \nba ]menpXneqsS hnizmknIfmb blqZmsc Xr]vXnsSpWsapw AXn\v tbcpitew tZhmebn ]ckyambn {]XysSWsapw hnip bmtm_volm, ktlmZcm Fp hnfnv, ]utemknt\mSv `hyXtbmsS \ntZinp. bmtm_volmbpsS \ntiw ]utemkv hn\b\mbn kzIcnv \kdmb t\ ]qnbmnb \mep ]pcpjmtcmSp IqsS tZhmebn sNv kzbw ipoIcnv {hXw Ahkm\nnp.

sbcpitean kwLjw:
Ggp Znhkw Ignv Gjybn \nv h {]tIm]nXcmb Nne blqZm ]utemkns\ ]nSnIqSn Itw sNpIbpw Fm P\tfbpw Atlns\Xncmbn Cfn adnbpw sNbvXp. sbcpiteays\nepw Ipsd hjw hntZiv ip{iqj sNbvXp t]mncpXn\m sbcpitean Atlw A]cnNnX\mbnoncpp. Ah t\cs Fs^ky\mb t{Xm^ntamkns\ ]utemknt\mSpIqsS \Kcn IXn\m s]utemkv Ahs\ ssZhmebn, blqZmcmhsc A\phZnm hnPmXnbcpsS {]mImcn\pdv, Iqnsmp hp Fp \ncq]nv, ]utemkv ]pWyes Aipamn Fv P\sf sXncnnp. Ah ]utemkns\ tZhmebn \nv henngv ]pdpXn IXISp. Ah Atls sImphm {ianptm, AtmWnb tImbn [ Antonia Fortress ] XSnncp tdma ssk\yw tZhmebnse Iem]spdnv tIv ]mv hp. ssk\ym[n] epknbmkv, ]utemkns\ ASnpXv XSbpIbpw hnepshv Atls tImbntev FSpp sImpt]mIbpw sNbvXp. P\qw BibpgnembncpXn\m IamU Atls _mcmpIfn sImpt]mbn tNmZyw sNbvXp. tImbpsS IhmSn\Iv ]utemkv ssk\ym[n]s\ {Kon A`nkwt_m[\ sNbvXp. Ipsd \m apv CuPn]vXn \npw hv 4000 A\pbmbnIsf acp`qanbn Iqn sbcpiteantev amv sNbvX I]S {]hmNI\mWv AsXv sXncnncp ssk\ym[n], ]utemkv {Kon A`nhmZyw sNpXptIv Bcysp. Xm InenIybn Xskmkv F {]kn\Kcnse tdma s]uc\mtbmcp sblqZ BIpp Fv s]utemkv ssk\ym[n]\v kzbw ]cnNbsSpn, P\qs A`nkwt_m[\ sNm A\phmZw tNmZnp. ssk\ym[n] A\paXn \In.

AtmWnb tImbpsS tImhWnSnbn \nv ]utemkv, InenIybnse Xskmkn hf Hcp blqZs\ \nebn F{_mb `mjbn Xs ]mehpw, dn Kamentben\p Iognep hnZym`ymkhpw hnhcnp. Zakvsmkntep hgnbnse Xs ]cnh\ns kmyhpw, sbcpitew hnv hnPmXnbtcmSv kmyw hlnm tbip XtmSv ]dXpw hniZoIcnp. Fm P\w, "Cs\hs\ `qanbn \np \onfI; Ah PohnncnpXp tbmKya' Fv IqInhnfnv Alknp. Fm ]utemkns {]kwKw tIpsImncp ]coimcpw kZqIycpw Xn `nXbpmbn, k` hn`Pnsp. P\w BpsImncpXn\m, kwKXn Fp Fp AdntbXnp Z\w sNbvXv tNmZyw sNm ]utemkns\ tImbntep sImp t]mIphm ssk\ym[n] Iev]np. Xs hmdpsImp sIptm s]utemkv AcnsI \np Hm^oktdmSv: tdma s]uc\pw hnkvXmcw Ignbmh\pamb a\pjys\ Nn sImp ASnpXp icntbm Fp tNmZnp. ]utemkv tdmam ]uc Fdnv ]c{`mcmb ssk\ym[n] Atls hnbp. Fnepw A{Iamkamb tImelespSv, ssk\ym[n] epknbmkv, ]utemkns Pohs\ `bv, kmbp[ AISntbmsS, 60 ssa hSv cp Znhks bm{Xm Zpcap ssIkcybn, tdma Kh s^enIvkns apmsI hmZw tIġm Hcp Ipw sImSpv Abp. s^enIvkv Ip hmbnnv hmZnIfpw IqsS hp tNcptm \ns hnkvXcnmw Fp ]dv sltcmZmhnsd Bm\n ]utemkns\ hnNmcW XShpImc\mbn IkvSnbn kqnm Dchnp.

hnkvXmc XShpImc\mbn ]utemkv ssIkcybn:
Ap Znhkw Ignv alm]ptcmlnX\mb A\\ymkv, aqmtcbpw sXpsmkv F Hcp A`n`mjIt\bpw Iqn ssIkcybn t^enIvkns tImSXnbn Fn. sblqZmcpsS CSbn IelapmpIbpw ssZhmebw Xonm {ianpIbpw sNbvXp Fv s]utemknsd t\sc A\ymbw t_m[nnp. AXn\v ]utemkv, Xm sbcqitean \akvcnm t]mbnp ]{p Znhkn A[nIambn Fpw ssZhmebntem ]nIfntem \Kcfntem shp BtcmSpw hmZntbm Ielw DmpItbm sNpXmbn Ah Fs Inn, Fpw FXnhmZw Dbnp. ]utemkns t\scbp A\ymbw sXfnbnm Ahp Ignn. Ccp hmZfpw tItijw t^enIvkv, epknbmkv ssk\ym[n] h tijw Imcyn\p Xopmmw Fp ]dv tIkv Ah[np shp. Ipsd Znhk Ignv t^enIvkv sblqZ kv{Xobmb Xsd `mcy {Zpknbpambn hp, s]utemkns\ hcpn {InkvXptbiphnep hnizmkspdnp {]kwKw tIp. Fm s]utemkv \oXn, C{nbPbw, hcphm\p \ymbhn[n Fnhsbpdnp kwkmcnptm t^enIvkv `bsv: Xmew t]mImw; Ahkcw Dtm \ns hnfnnmw Fp ]dp. ]utemkv Xs tamN\n\mbn ssIqen \Ipw Fv AgnaXnmc\mb t^enIvkv IcpXn tIkv \onsmpt]mbn. cv hjġptijw t^enIvknp ]nhmgnbmbn s]msymkv s^kvsXmkv htm t^enIvkv sblqZmcpsS {]oXn kmZntWw Fp shp s]utemkns\ XShpImc\mbn hntp t]mbn.

\hmKX\mb Kh s^kvsXmkv, hv aqp Znhkw Ignv tbcpitean kulrZ ki\w \Sn. alm]ptcmln\pw av sblqZmcpw ]utemkns\ hgnbn shp h[nm ]Xnbnv, ]utemkns\Xnsc \ne\np hyhlmcw ssIkcybn \nv tbcpiteantev amWsav Khv At] \In. Fm s^kvsXmkv AhcpsS At] Xn; ssIkcybntev aSn. Ipsd Znhkw Ignv blqZybnse A{KnmcmPmhpw s_ocmnbpw HutZymInI ki\n\v ssIkcybn KhdpsS sImmcn Fn. s^kvsXmkv, ap Kh t^enIvkv hntpt]mb ]utemkv F hnkvXmc XShpImcs\pdnv A{Knm cmPmhnt\mSv hniZambn kwkmcnp. kz aXspdnpw Pohnncnpp Fp s]utemkv ]dbp acnp t]mb tbip Fsmcphs\pdnpw D Nne XkwKXnIfmbXn\m, Cs\bp hnjbfn hnNmcW \StXp Fs\sbp X\nv AdnbmbvIbm; A{KnmcmPmhn\v sbcpiteantep sImpt]mbn AhnsS Cu kwKXnIsfpdnp hnkvXmcw \Sm kXaptm Fp Bcmp. ]utemkns {]kwKw tIġm A{KnmcmPmhv B{Klw {]ISnnp. ]ns Znhkw A{Knmhp s_obpambn hfsc BUw_ctmsS hp. tk\m]XnItfmSpw \Kcnse {][m\nItfmSpw IqsS hnNmcWa]n s^kvsXmknsd kmnyn ]utemkns {]kwKw tIp. XovWXbp blqZ\mbncp Xm Fs\ ]cnh\w sNspshpw tbip \ymb{]amW{]Imchpw {]hmNI hN\{]Imchpw blqZm Imncp ainlm BsWpw, ]utemkv cmPkZn {]mKytmsS {]kwKnp ]utemkns {]kwKw tIv s^kvsXmkv: s]utemtk, \n\p {`mpp; hnZym_lpXzm \n\p {`mp ]nSnncnpp Fp Dds ]dp. Fm, blqZmcpsS \ymb{]amWsfpdnv \ ]cnm\apmbncp A{KncmPmhv ]utemkns {]kwKw {itbmsS tIp, ]utemkns hmZapJsf A\pIqenp. Fm ]utemkv CXn\Iw, Xm ssIkcpsS \ymbmk\np apmsI \nevpIbm AhnsS Xs hnkvXcntXmIpp Fv ssIksc A`bw sNmnbncpp. ssIksc A`bw sNmnbncpnsn ]utemkns\ hnbbvmambncpp Fv A{KncmPmhv A`n{]mbsp. s^kvsXmkv, Xs \nba D]tZmmcpsS D]tZiw tXSnbtijw, ]utemkv tdman ssIk N{Ihn Xncpa\ns apn t]mIpXphsc XShn XpScm Dchnp.

]utemkns Cenbntep bm{X:
ssIkcybn hnkvXmc XShpImc\mbncp ]utemkns\ Cenbntev amphm\p I\ Bbtm, Atltbpw ap Nne XShpImscbpw HuKpkvXy ]mfnse iXm[n]\mb bqensbmkns kwcWbn Hcp A{Zapy Ien Ibn bm{X ]pdsp. sXsem\nbn \np astZm\ymc\mb AcnkvXslmkpw IqsS Dmbncpp. Gjy hgnbp bm{Xbn ]ns Znhkw Ah kotZm\n Fn. IamU bqensbmkv s]utemknt\mSp Zb ImWnp, kvt\lnXmcpsS ASp t]mbn kmcw kzoIcnpsImm A\phZw sImSpp. InenIy ]w^pey IS ISv epnbbnse apdmWn Fnbtm aptmp bm{X, Cenbntep t]mIp thsdmcp AeIvkm{nb Ientev amn. Imp {]XnIqeamIbm I bm{X ZpjvIcambncpp. ioXImeamIptmtgpw s^mbv\ojybn Fmw Fv Ah B{Klnv m sNbvXncpp. Fm Ipsd Igntm Cuim\aqe F iamb sImSpmp ASnp; I XIpt]mIpsav Ah IcpXn. Fnepw Ien\v AmsX av BcptSbpw Poh\v A]ISw DmIbnsv BZi\n a\nemnb ]utemkv klbm{XnIsc Bizknnv ss[cysSpn ]Xn\mep Znhkw Poh`bm Almcw Hpw IgnmXncp Ccp\qsgp]mdp bm{Xmsc ]utemkv s[cysSpn \nnv `Ww Ignnp. ]utemkn\p e`n Zi\w t]mse Xs I A]ISw IqSmsX saen F Zz]n\Spv Ddp. \om Adnbph \onbpw Amh ]eI IjW D]tbmKnpw Icbn Fn. HutZymKnIambn Cv dnnv Hm^v amī [ Replublic Of Malta ] FdnbsSp, Cenp sXv 50 ssa Zqcn nXnsNp saUntd\nb ISense Zzo]v kaqlw saen Fv Adnbsncpp.

s]utemkv tdman:
B Zzo]n Xmaknncp BZnhmkn kaqlw hfsc ZbtbmsS s]cpamdn, agbpw ssiXyhpw \nanw XoIqn Ahsc kzoIcnp. s]utemkv Ipsd hndIp s]dpn Xobn Ctm Hcp AWen NqSp \nanw ]pdsp Atlns ssIp]nSnp ]n. BZnhmknI AXpIv AhcpsS Ahnizmk{]Imcw ]utemkv Ipe]mXI Fv kwibnp. ]utemkv B]smpw kw`hnmsX B Pphns\ Xobn IpSp Ifp. AXn\ptijw ]utemkv Hcp ssZh]pcpj Fv B \mpImscmw hnizknp. B ensd kao]p ]pnsbmkv F Zzo]p {]amWnp Hcp P`qan Dmbncpp; Atlw ]utemkns\bpw Iqtcbpw kzoIcnv aqp Znhkw BZcthmsS AXnYnkmcw sNbvXp. ]\nbpw AXnkmchpw ]nSnp InSnembncp ]pnsbmknsd As\ s]utemkv ssIshp {]mnp skuJyw hcpn. CXp Iv Zzo]nse ap Zo\mcpw hp skuJyw {]m]np. aqp amkw Ignv Aiz\n Nnlv\aptmcp AeIvkm{nb Ien Ibdn Ah tdmantev ]pdsp, kpdqkbn Iscndn aqp Znhkw Xmaknp. knknen Zzo]nse Ncn{X]cambn {]m[m\yap \KcamWv Hcp Cmenb {]hniybpsS Xem\amb kpdqkv. {]kn KWnXimkv{X\mbncp BnsaUokns PeamWv CXv. ]pcmX\ Imev saUntd\nb temInse {]apJ intI{fn Hmbncpp kpdqkv.

kpdqkbn \nv Ah tcsKym, ]psXymen hgn tdman Fn. tdmanse ktlmZcm ]utemkv tdmantep hcpp F hm tIv ktmjnv Ah ]psXymenbn Fnbtm Xs Atls A`nhmZyw sNphm Bnb sslthbntev [ Appean Highway ] ]pdsp. Hcp kwLw A]y]pcnepw [ Forum of Appius ] asmcp kwLw {Xna]nepw [ Three Taverns ] Imp\nv Ahsc FXntcp kzoIcnp. ]pcmX\ tdma dnnnse Hcp {][m\ tdmUmbncpp B.C. 312 \nn Bnb sslth [ Appean Highway ]. CXv tdmans\ sXp Ing Cenbnse {_nnknbpambn tbmPnnpp. ssk\nI hnXcWn\p {][m\ hgnbmbncpp CXv. tdman \nv sXpIngmbn 43 ssa Zqcn nXn sNp Bnb sslth bnse Hcp {][m\ hgnmhfamWv A]y]pcw [ Forum of Appius ]. Bnb sslthbn Xs A]y]pcp\nv 6 ssa Zpcn nXnsNp asmcp {]kn hgnmhfamWv {Xna]w [ Three Taverns ]. tdmanse ktlmZcmsc Inp s]utemkv ssZhs hmgvn ss[cyw {]m]np. tdmabn X\np Imhemb ]SbmfntbmSp IqsS hopXSen Ignbm s]usemknp A\phmZw Inn. Hcp Znhkw \nbnv [mcmfwt] Atlns Xmakev Fn; cmhnse XpSn kyhsc ssZhcmPyspdnp ]utemkns kmy{]kwKw {ihnp. Xs IcpX XSenemnb hmSI sInSn ]utemkv cp hjw Xmaknp. Cmea{Xbpw ]utemkv ]q {]mKytmsS hnLv\w IqSmsX ssZhcmPyw {]kwKnpw Imhmb tbip{InkvXphns\pdnp D]tZinpw t]mp.

Imcm{Kl teJ\:
]mccy hnizmka\pkcnv Ft^ky, sImsemky, ^ntetam, ^neny Fn teJ\ ]utemkns tdma hnkvXmc XShv kabv FgpXnbnphbmWv. Ft^kysgpXnb teJ\ns mbnbmb {]tabw, "{InkvXym\nIsf ]ckv]cw HptNcpI! {InkvXp Xs acWneqsS t\SnsbSp sFIyw \ne\npI.' FXmWv. ]utemkpw XnsamsYtbmkpw tNv Hcp {^nPnb \Kcamb sImsemkybnse k`bvv FgpXnb teJ\amWv sImsemky teJ\w. ]utemkv kinnnm Hcp k`sbbmWv teJ\n A`nkwt_m[\ sNpXv. ^nennbp teJ\ns cNbnXmhv ]utemkpw klcNbnXmhv XnsamsYtbmkpw BWv. sImsemky k`bnse Hcp {]apJ\mb ^ntetam\v ]utemkv XnsamsYtbmkns\mw FgpXnb Imcm{Kl teJ\amWv ^ntetam\v FgpXnb teJ\w. a, A\pcRvP\w Fn hnjb teJ\n {]Xn]mZnpp.

]utemkns XpSp bm{Xsbpdnp hnhc AsmkvXe{]hnIfn \npw \apv e`npn. ]utemkns teJ\fn \np kpN\I am{Xsa e`yambnpp. tdmanse cp hjs hopXSen\ptijw tdmanse tImSXnbn \npw X\np A\pIqeambn hn[n e`np Fp XnsamsYtbkn\v FgpXnb cmw teJ\n kpN\ e`npp. "Fsd Hmw {]XnhmZn Bcpw F\np XpW \nn; Fmhcpw Fs ssIhnp; AXp Ahp IWnSmXncns. Imthm F\np XpW \np {]kwKw Fssmp \nhnm\pw kIe PmXnIfpw tIĸm\pw Fs ioIcnp; As\ Rm knwlnsd hmbn \np c {]m]np. (2 XosamsYsbmkv 4:1617) AXn\ptijw tamNnX\mb ]utemkv Xs anjy\dn bm{Xbpw kphntij tLmjWhpw XpSpw \Snbncppshpw Xs teJ\fnse ]e ]cmai\fn \npw \apv hnizknmw. 1 XnsasYtbmkv, Xotmkv Fn teJ\ Cu ImebfhnemWv cNnsXv hnizknsSpp. Cu cp teJ\fpw hynIsgpXnb CSb teJ\fmWv. ]utemkv kvs]bn kinXmbn ]mccy hnizmkapv; Fnepw ss__nfn CXv ]cmainnn.

]utemkns anjy\dn bm{X {]h\ tdmanse Xs cmas AdkvtmSpIqSn Ahkm\np Fv hnizknsSpp. Atls amsass [ Mamertine ] Pbnen _\\mn. t\cs kzw hoSpIfn hopXSen ]mnncpXnt\m ITn\ambncpp s]mXp Pbnense PohnXw. Xs Ahkm\w ASppshv ]utemkn\v t_myapmbncpp. "Rmt\m Ctm Xt ]m\obbmKambn HgnsSpp; Fsd \ncymWImehpw ASpncnpp.' (2 XosamsYsbmkv 4:6) eqtmkpw Hs\knt^mdkpw Atls Pbnen ]cnNcnp Fnepw ap ]ecpw Dt]np. "eqsmkv am{Xta FtmSpIqsS Dp; atmkv F\np ip{iqjmbn D]tbmKaph BIbm Ahs\ Iqnsmp hcnI. (2 XosamsYsbmkv 4:11) "]etmgpw Fs XWpnh\mb Ht\kns^mscmknsd IpSpw_np Imhp IcpW \IpamdmIs. Ah Fsd Nesbpdnp enmsX Rm tdmabn Fnb DSs\ Xmev]cytmsS Fs Xncp IspIbpw sNbvXp.' (2 XosamsYsbmkv 1:1617)

]utemkv tdmanse Xs cmw Imcm{Klhmk kabv FgpXnb teJ\amWv XnsamsYtbmkn\p FgpXnb cmw teJ\w. AsmkvXe FgpXnb Ahkm\s teJ\amWv CXv. tdmanse {InkvXym\nIsXnsc {]tIm]nX\mbncp \otdm N{Ihn ]utemkns\ inctZw sNbvXpshv ]mccyw hnizknpp. As\ Imhmb tbip{InkvXphn\pthn Poh shp sImSp AsmkvXe\mb hnip ]utemkv F bpK]pcpj ckmn acWw {]m]np.

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