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BIBLE LIGHT SERIES - MALAYALAM

DEVINE FOOT TOUCH OF LORD JESUS
Imhmb tbiphns ]mZkv]iw

Chapter 2 - Mountains in the Biblical Holy Land
thZnse hnip`qanbnse ]X
By Editor Dr. Rajan Mathew

[ As many Geographical Maps are used in this Article, it is advisable to read the Article in PC/Laptop than Mobile Devices. All the Maps in the Article are not to scale, only indicative and no politcal significance]

XncpshgppIsfpdnp ka{Kamb Adnhv e`npXn\pw, ss__nfns B[nImcnIX BkzZndnbpXn\pw ASn hmpIġnSbneqsS \pgpIbdm \mw {]m]vXcmbnWw. ]pcmX\ C{ktbens `q{]IrXnIfpw, Kԧfpw, i_vZfpw \apv kp]cnNnXambncnWw. Ime{ItaW amdnamdn cq]sphcp \mKcnIXI A[nhknp a\pjysc amn ]mnpp. ImefpsS amġnSbn a\pjy\nnX hmkvXpin `q{]tZifpsS apJ`mhw amnadnpp. cmjv{Sob A[n\nthi AXnnIsf ]p\xm]npp. Fm imizXambn \ne\npXv ssZhw krjvSn ASnm\ `qanimkv{X LS\ am{XamWv. AXn Ghpw {][m\ambXv ISepIfpw, aeIfpw \ZnIfpamWv. {InkvXob thZimkv{Xns Ncn{Xnepw Imhmb tbip{InkvXphns AhXmc NcnXnepw aeIfpsS {]m[m\yw hfsc henbXmWv.

sltm ]Xw (Mount Hermon) :
ko\mc 89mw ko\n ssZhns krjvSnbpsS alXzs {]Ionpp. "ZntWmc ZnpIsf \o krnncnpp; Xt_mcpw sltm\pw \nsd \man B\npp;' (ko\ 89:12) temIns Ghpw hnZqc `mK, hSpw sXpw, P\hmkanmXpw A[nIw AdnbsSmXpamb cv {[qhġp Iognep cmPy ssZhs kvXpXnpp. I\m\nse Ghpw Dbcap IppI Xt_mcpw sltm\pw, Hp ]Snmdpw Hp Ingpw, ssZhns \man ktmjnpp.

Mount Hermon

sltm ]Xw e_mt\m ]X \ncIfnse Ghpw Db sImSpapSnbmWv. kndnb, se_t\m, C{kmtb Fo aqv B[p\nI cmPyfpsS AXnnbn 28 ssa (45 In. an.) hym]np InSp, kap{Z \ncn \nv GItZiw 9000 ASn Dbcap, ktXnIambn, Hcp ]X irwKebmWv. hjn `qcn`mKhpw apaqSnb sltm ]Xw tPmm dn^vv XmgvhcbneqsS HgpIp ipPens {]mYanI t{kmXmWv. AXv ]ns Keoen ISentepw, tPmm \ZnbneqsSbpw HgpIn HSphn NmhpISen \n]Xnpp. sltm ]Xn \nv sXv Keoe IS hscbp Zpcw GItZiw 45 ssaemWv (72 In. ao.) tbcpiteantep Zqcw 120 ssa (193 In. ao.) hnip thZn sltm ap t]cpIfnepw ]cmainppv. "kotZm\y sltmp kntcym Fpw Atamcytcm AXn\p sk\o Fpw t] ]dbpp.' (Bh\]pkvXIw 3:9)

thZnse bn{ktbens hSpIng AXnnbn hnip ]Xamb sltm ]Xw, tPmjzm Atamcycn \nv IogSnb hmKvZ tZins Atbs hS AXnnbmbn ASbmfsSpn, tbmm \Znp Ingp`mKw a\sbpsS ]mXntKm{Xn\v AhImiambn sImSpp. ( Bh\w 3:8 Cs\ Amep AtamcycpsS cp cmPmmcpsSbpw In\np tbmmsc Atm Xmgvhc XpSn sltm ]Xw hscbpff tZihpw \mw ]nSnp. (Bh\]pkvXIw 3:8); tbmiph 11:17; 12:1; 13:5 bn{kmtba tbmmsc Ingp Atm XmgvhcapX sltm ]Xwhscbpff cmPyhpw Ings Acm_ apgph\pw ssIhiampIbn kwlcnpIf XticmPmm Ch BIpp. Kns_eycpsS tZihpw Ingp sltm ]Xnsd ASnhmcnse _mKmZvapX lamntep Xncnbp ewhscbpff se_mt\m Hsbpw; (tbmiph 11:17; 12:1; 13:5) ; 1 Zn\hrmw 5:23 a\sbpsS ]mXntKm{Xm tZip ]mp. _mim apX _msltm\pw, sk\ocpw, sltm ]Xhpw hsc s]cpIn ]cp. (1 Zn\hrmw 5:23)) Hsmcpanp Pohnp ssZhP\s sltm ]Xnse an\p kam\ambnmWv ImhylrZb\mb ZmhoZp cmPmhv honpXv. ( ko\ 133:13 CXm ktlmZcm Hsmcpanp hknpXp F{X ip`hpw F{X at\mlchpw BIpp! AXp hkv{Xnsd hnfpntep \opInSp XmSnbntep, Altcmsd XmSnbntep Xt, HgpIp Xmbn Ahsd Xebnse hntijssXew t]msebpw kotbm ]Xn s]p sltm\y apt]msebpw BIpp; AhnsSbtm btlmh A\p{Klhpw imizXambnpff Poh\pw Iev]nncnpXp. (ko\ 133:13)) hSs sltm ]X NcnhpIfn [mcmfw apv: Fm sXv kotbm ]Xw hcXmWv. ZmhoZv sltms \thmtjZmbIamb aphogvNsb bn{ktbense ssZhP\ns PohZmbIamb sFIyns A\p{KltfmSv D]anncnpp.

{InkvXob k`bpsS hmKvZ hnizmka\pkcnv {InkvXphpw k`bpw Xn Hcp ]cnWb DSSnbpv. ]pXnb\nbanse {InkvXphntbpw Ahs aWhmnbmb k`bptSbpw {]Wb DpwKsf {]ISamp ]gb \nba {]hN\mIcamb kwKoX hcnIfmWv irwKmc Imhyamb DaKoX. (Song of Songs) "Imt, se_mt\ms\ hnp FtmSp IqsS hcnI; Aam\mapIfpw si\o sltm sImSpapSnIfpw knwlfpsS KplIfpw ]pnpenIfpsS ]Xfpw hnp t]mcnI.' (DaKoXw 4:8) ]ckv]c _lpam\n {InkvXp k`sb Aht\msSmw Wnpp. se_t\ms kpKhpw sltm\nse at\mlcamb apw kpJfpw hnsdnv Hcp hnizkvX h[phmbn XtmsSmw hcm Ah \Ip Zbbp Blzm\amWv CXv.

]pXnb\nban Imhmb tbiphns ]mZkv]iw e`n Xs bm{Xm]Ynse Ghpw hSs \Kcamb ^nenns ssIkcy sltm\n \nv 15 ssa am{Xw ZqcnemWv. {]hmNmcneqsS shfnsSpn bn{kmtb P\w Imncp temIP\XbpsS cnXmhmb ainlmbmWv Xms\ clkyw Xs injymv BZyambn shfnsSpnbXv ^nenns ssIkcybn shmbncpp. ( ambn 16:1317 tbip ^nennsd ssIkcybpsS {]tZip Fnb tijw Xsd injymtcmSp: P\ a\pjy]p{Xs\ B Fp ]dbpp Fp tNmZnp. Nne tbmlmkv\m]I Fpw ap Nne Genbmshpw thsd Nne bnscaymthm {]hmNImcn Hcpt\m Fpw ]dbpp Fp Ah ]dp. \ntfm Fs B Fp ]dbpp Fp Ah tNmZnXnp iotam ]s{Xmkv: \o Poh\p ssZhnsd ]p{X\mb {InkvXp Fp Dcw ]dp. tbip Aht\mSp: _tbm\m iotamt\, \o `mKyhm; PUc A, kz\mb Fsd ]nXmht{X \n\p CXp shfnsSpnbXp. (ambn 16:1317); asmkv 8:2730 A\cw tbip injymcpambn ^nentmknsd ssIkcyp ASp DucpIfntep t]mbn; hgnbnshp injymtcmSp: P\ Fs B Fp ]dbpp Fp tNmZnp. tbmlmkv\m]Is\p Nne, Genbmshp Nne, {]hmNImcn Hcp Fp ap Nne Fp Ah Dcw ]dp. Ah AhtcmSp: Fm \n Fs B Fp ]dbpp Fp tNmZnXnp: \o {InkvXp BIpp Fp ]s{Xmkv Dcw ]dp. ]ns Xspdnp BtcmSpw ]dbcpsXp Ah AhtcmSp JnXambn ]dp. (asmkv 8:2730))

Xmt_m ae (Mount Tabor) :
{InkvXp cq]mcw {]m]n ae Fv ]ccmKXambn hnizknp t]mcp Xmt_m ae Keoenbnse Ghpw Db aebmWv, CXns\ adpcp] ae Fpw hnfnpp. P{ko Xmgvhcbnse temh Keoenbnse \t{kn\p IngmbnmWv Xmt_m ae nXn sNpXv. CXn\v henb Dbcw Csnepw (kap{Z\ncn \nv 560 ao /1840 ASn am{XamWv sImSpapSn Dbcw) AXv XmgvhcbpsS ayn hfsc hyXncnamWv. \mt_mns Ipanm cw hoWXpw ssZhtIm]m Ck_ cmnbpsS cw \mbv \npSnXpw P{ko XmgvhcbpsS {]tZifnemWv.

]nXmhmb ssZhn \npw {InkvXphn\v _lpam\hpw alXzhpw e`nv, "Ch Fs {]ob ]p{X, Ch\n Rm {]kmZnncnpp' F Aicocn kzob hnfwcw {ihnp kmnbmbno A\p{KloX ]XamWv Xmt_m. kam\ kphntij aqnepw {InkvXphns tXPkvIcWw ]cmainppsnepw HcnSpw AXp kw`hn aebpsS t]cp ]dbpn. ( ambn 17:1-8 Bdp Znhkw Igntijw tbip ]s{Xmkns\bpw bmtm_ns\bpw Ahsd ktlmZc\mb tbmlms\bpw Iqn X\np Hcp Db aebntep sImpt]mbn, AhcpsS apmsI cq]mcsp, Ahsd apJw kqcys\tmse tim`np Ahsd hkv{Xw shfnw t]mse shbmbnop. tamsibpw Genbmhpw Aht\mSp kw`mjnpXmbn Ah Ip. Atm ]s{Xmkv tbiphnt\mSp: Imth, \mw ChnsS CcnpXp \p; \n\p kXsan Rm ChnsS aqp IpSn Dmmw Hp \n\pw Hp tamsipw Hp Genbmhnpw Fp ]dp. Ah ]dbptmXt {]Imiaptmcp taLw AhcpsS ta \ngenp; taLn \np: Ch Fsd {]nb ]p{X, Ch Rm {]kmZnpp; Chp sNhnsImSpn Fp Hcp i_vZhpw Dmbn. injym AXp tInp Ghpw `bsp IhnphoWp. tbip ASppsNp Ahsc sXmp: Fgptev]n, `bstSm Fp ]dp. Ah Xe s]mnbmsd tbiphns\ am{XamsX Bscbpw In. (ambn 17:1-8): asmkv 9:2-8 Bdp Znhkw Igntijw tbip ]s{Xmkns\bpw bmtm_ns\bpw tbmlms\bpw Iqn Hcp Db aebntep X\np sImpt]mbn AhcpsS apmsI cq]mcsp. `qanbn Hcp AepImcpw shfpnm IgnbmXhw Ahsd hkv{Xw AXyw shfpmbn Xnfn. Atm Genbmhpw tamsibpw Ahp {]Xyambn tbiphnt\mSp kw`mjnpsImncpp. ]s{Xmkv tbiphnt\mSp: dn \mw ChnsS CcnpXp \Xp; R aqp IpSn Dms; Hp \n\pw Hp tamsipw Hp Genbmhnpw Fp ]dp. Xm Fp ]dtbp Fp Ah Adnn; Ah `b]chicmbncpp. ]ns Hcp taLw hp AhcpsSta \ngenp: Ch Fsd {]nb]p{X; Chp sNhnsImSpn Fp taLn \np Hcp i_vZhpw Dmbn. s]sp Ah Nppw t\mnbmsd XtfmSpIqsS tbiphns\ am{Xw AmsX Bscbpw In. (asmkv 9:2-8); epsmkv 9:28-36 Cu hmpI ]dnp GItZiw Fp \m Igntm Ah ]s{Xmkns\bpw tbmlms\bpw bmtm_ns\bpw IqnsImp {]mnm aebn Ibdntmbn. Ah {]mnptm apJnsd `mhw amdn, DSpp anp shffbmbpw Xop. cp ]pcpjm Aht\mSp kw`mjnp; tamsibpw Genbmhpw Xt. Ah tXPn {]Xycmbn Ah sbcpitean {]m]nm\pff \ncymWspdnp kwkmcnp. ]s{Xmkpw IqsSbpffhcpw Ddm `mcsncpp; DWtijw Ahsd tXPns\bpw Aht\mSpIqsS \np cp ]pcpjmscbpw Ip. Ah Ahs\ hnp]ncnbptm ]s{Xmkv tbiphnt\mSp: Kptcm, \mw ChnsS CcnpXp \Xp; R aqp IpSn Dms, Hp \n\pw Hp tamsipw Hp Genbmhnpw Fp Xm ]dbpXp CXp Fp AdnbmsX ]dp. CXp ]dbptm Hcp taLw hp AhcpsSta \ngenp. Ah taLn Bbtm t]Snp. taLn\np: Ch Fsd {]nb]p{X, Chp sNhnsImSpn Fp Hcp i_vZw Dmbn. i_vZw Dmb t\cp tbiphns\ X\nsb Ip; Ah IXp Hpw B \mfpIfn BtcmSpw AdnbnmsX sau\ambncpp. (epsmkv 9:28-36)) Fm k`bpw ]mccyhpw ]TnnpXv AXp kw`hnXv Xmt_m aebn shmsWmWv. kphntij Iuie]qw cq]sSpnb sIqIYb, R AXns ZrIvkmnIfmsWv ]t{Xmkv Xs cmw teJ\n ncnIccnpp. ( 2 ]s{Xmkv 1:1618 R \psS Imhmb tbip{InkvXphnsd inbpw {]XyXbpw \ntfmSp AdnbnXp \nnXIYIsf {]amWnn, Ahsd alna I kmnIfmbnont{X. "Ch Fsd {]nb]p{X; Ch Rm {]kmZnncnpp' Fp i_vZw aXn t{ijvTtXPn \np htm ]nXmhmb ssZhm Ahp am\hpw tXPpw e`np. R Aht\mSpIqsS hnip ]Xn Ccnptm kzn \npw Cu i_vZw DmbXp tIp. (2 ]s{Xmkv 1:1618))

sZt_mcm F {]hmNInbpsS Imep Iotim tXmn shv koskcsb tXmnm Xmgvhcbntep IpXnpXn\p apv _mcmv Xs ssk\ys tiJcn {]knamb eambn Xmt_m aesb \ymbm[n]mcpsS ]pkvXIn ]cmainpp. ( \ymbm[n]m 4:48 B Imep eotZmnsd `mcybmb sZt_mcm F {]hmNIn bn{kmtben \ymb]me\w sNbvXp. Ah F{^bow ]Xn cmsapw t_tYenp atybpff sZt_mcbpsS Cu\bpsS Iogn ]mncpp; bn{kmtba \ymbhnkvXmcnp AhfpsS ASp sNpI ]Xnhmbncpp. Ah A_ot\mhmansd aI\mb _mcmns\ tIsZiv\^vXmenbn \np hnfnnp Aht\mSp: \o ]pdsp Xmt_m ]Xn sNp \^vXmenbpsSbpw sk_qeqsdbpw afn ]Xn\mbncw t]sc IqnsmI; Rm bm_osd tk\m]Xn koskcsbbpw IotimtXmncnsI \nsd ASp sImphp \nsd In Gnpsap bn{kmtbensd ssZhamb btlmh \ntmSp Inpp Fp ]dp. (\ymbm[n]m 4:48)) tZip kXyhpw C, Zbbpw C, ssZh]cnm\hpan F Ahsbbpw Av {]Nmcnencp anYymcm[\tbbpw _n. kn. Fmw \qmn Pohnncp tlmtib {]hmNI 'Xmt_mdnt hncn he' FmWv hntijnnpXv. ( tlmtib 5:1 ]ptcmlnXmtc, tIĸn; bn{kmtb Krlta, sNhnsmhn; cmPKrlta, sNhn Xcphn; \n anskv]p Hcp IWnbpw Xmt_mcnt hncn hebpw BbnoncnsImp \ymbhn[n \nġp hcpp. (tlmtib 5:1))

It ]Xw (Mount Carmel):
saUntd\nb ISen \nv sXpIngmbn hym]np InSp hS bn{ktbense Hcp XoctZi ]X \ncbmWv It ]Xw. It F hmns Aw ssZhns apncntmw FmWv. It t{iWn GItZiw 4 apX 5 ssa hsc hoXnbpXmWv. sXmSpv hSpIngmbmWv P{ko Xmgvhc \nesImpXv.

Mount Tabor and Mount Carmel

apJy[mcm blqZ, {InkvXy k`mhnizmk NnIfn Genbmhv It ]Xhpambn ambmsX _sncnpp. ]etmgpw Atlw ]Xnse Hcp Kplbn ]mncpXmbn hnizknsSpp. cmPmmcpsS ]pkvXIw A\pkcnv It ]Xn Hcp _en]oTw Dmbncpp. AXv Blm_ns Imeambtmtgpw \inncpp. Fm Genbmhv bmK]oTw ]pXpn ]WnXp. ( 1 cmPmm 18:3032 Atm Genbmhp: Fsd ASp hcphn Fp kP\tmSpw ]dp. kP\hpw Ahsd ASp tNp. Ah CSnpInS btlmhbpsS bmK]oTw \mn; \n\p bn{kmtb Fp t]cmIpw Fp btlmhbpsS AcpfmSp e`n bmtm_nsd ]p{XmcpsS tKm{XkwJyp Hhw ]{p Ip FSpp, IpsImp btlmhbpsS \man Hcp bmK]oTw ]WnXp; bmK]oTnsd Nppw cp skbm hnp hnsXm aXnbmb hnkvXmcn Hcp tXmSp Dmn. (1 cmPmm 18:3032) )

XpSbmbn h bn{kmtb cmPmmcpsS hn{Klmcm[\ {]hWXbpw ]npWbpw kXyssZhns ZrjvSnbn Xnbmbn `hn Hcp ImeLnembncpp Genbm {]hmNIs Bhn`mhw. Blm_v cmPmhv s^mbv\ojy cmPIpamcnbmb Cuk_ens\ hnhmlw Ignncpp. Ah btlmhbn\npw Xs ssZhamb _mentep XncnbpIbpw btlmhbpsS {]hmNImsc sImpIfIbpw sNbvXp. Fm Genbmhv Blm_nt\bpw _mens {]hmNImscbpw shp hnfnp. ]coWn\mbn _mens \m\qXv ]ptcmlnXmsc It ]Xn HcpanpIqm Genbmhv Blm_nt\mSv Bhiysp. As\ Blm_v B {]hmNImsc Fmw It]Xn Iqnhcpn. BZyw _mens {]hmNIm Imfsb Hcpn: _mte, DcacptfWta Fp cmhnse XpSn Dhsc _mensd \mas hnfnt]np. Hcp i_vZtam Dctam Dmbn. ]ns Genbmhv Imfsb Jw Jamn hndInaosX shp; btlmth, F\np DcacptfWta Fp ]dp. DSs\ btlmhbpsS Xo Cdn tlmabmKhpw hndIpw apw Zlnnp tXmnse shffhpw hnpIfp. ( 1 cmPmm 18:1920 Fm Ctm Bfbp Fm bn{kmtbens\bpw _mensd \mqXp {]hmNImscbpw Cutks_ensd taibn `nphcp \mqdp Aticm{]hmNImscbpw It ]Xn Fsd ASp IqnhcppI. As\ Blm_v Fm bn{kmtbafpsSbpw ASp Bfbp It]Xn B {]hmNImsc Iqnhcpn. (1 cmPmm 18:1920))

bmKn\ptijw Genbmhv It ]Xnsd apIfn Ibdn \nep Ip\np {]mnp. ISenp t\sc taLw t\mpXn\v Ggp {]mhiyw Xsd _meymsc Abp. Ggmw {]mhiyw ISen \np Hcp a\pjysd ssIt]mse Hcp sNdnb taLw s]mnhp. As\ aqp hjġptijw Wn BImiw taLhpw ImpwsImp Idpp hg s]bvXp. ( 1 cmPmm 18:42 Blm_v `np ]m\w sNtXnp aeIbdntmbn. Genbmthm It ]Xnsd apIfn Ibdn \nep Ip\np apJw Xsd apgmepIfpsS \Sphn shp Xsd _meymct\mSp: \o sNp ISenp t\sc t\mpI Fp ]dp. (1 cmPmm 18:42))

sNcn aescphnse karamb kkyPme hfbpw Ips\bp \nch[n KplIfpw ImcWw It IphmfnIfpsS hnlmc tI{ambn amdn. Btamkns ]pkvXIw CXv kqNnnppv. Fenim sbcntlmhnse shw ]Yyamnb tijw t_tYentep bm{X sNptm, "samebm, Ibdn hm; samebm, Ibdn hm' Fp ]dp ]Wn\np h _mem Fenimsb ]cnlknp. Fenim _memsc i]ntijw bm{XbmbXv It]Xntembncpp. ( 2 cmPmm 2:1925 ]ns Ah AhnsS\np t_tYentep t]mbn; Ah hgnbn \Sptm _mem ]Wn\np ]pdsp hp Ahs\ ]cnlknp Aht\mSp: samebm, Ibdn hm; samebm, Ibdn hm Fp ]dp. Ah ]ntmw Xncnp Ahsc t\mn btlmh \man Ahsc i]np; Atm Imn\np cp s]IcSn Cdnhp Ahcn \mev]ncp _memsc Iodnfp. Ah AhnSwhnp It]Xntep t]mbn; AhnsS\np iacybntep aSntmp. (2 cmPmm 2:25-25))

sKcnkow ]Xhpw G_m ]Xhpw ( Mount Gerazim And Mount Ebal ):
hnip {Kٯn {]Xn]mZnp titJw {]tZis cp ]XfmWv sKcnkoapw G_mepw. F|_mb ss__n {]Imcw, sFIycmPhmgvNbpsS bn{kmtb, sblqZ Fo cp cmPyfmbp - ]nfns\ XpSv hSs bn{kmtb cmPyns BZy Xem\w Bbncpp titJw. kap{Z \ncn\np GItZiw 950 ao Dbcap titJanse Ghpw henb sImSpapSnbmWv G_m. {][m\ambpw NpmpIpsImv aqSnbXmWv G_m ]Xw. kap{Z \ncn\np GItZiw 880 ao Dbcap sKcnkow ]Xw G_m ]Xtm 70 ao XmgvXmWv.

Mount Gerizin and Mount Ebal

bn{kmtbey hmKvZ `qanbntep {]thi\n\p aptmSnbmbn G_m ]Xn Npmp ]qinb Ip kvamcI m]nm\pw AXn AhcpsS ssZ\wZn\ PohnXspdnp ssZhns Fm \nbafpw FgpXn shm\pw tami \ntiw \In. A\cw Ccnp sXmSm sNm IpIsImv Hcp _en]oTw ]Wnbm\pw tami Bm]np. ( Bh\]pkvXIw 27:2-6 \n tbmm ISp \nsd ssZhamb btlmh \n\p Xcp tZip Fp Znhkw \o henb IpI \mn Ashp Ipmbw tXtWw: \nsd ]nXmmcpsS ssZhamb btlmh \n\p hmKvZw sNbvXXpt]mse \nsd ssZhamb btlmh \n\pXcp tZiambn ]mepw tX\pw HgpIp tZip sNphm IStijw \o Cu \ymb{]amWnsd hN\ Fmw Ahbn FgptXWw. BIbm \n tbmm ISnp Rm Cp \ntfmSp Bm]np Cu IpI G_m ]Xn \mpIbpw Ashp Ipmbw tXpIbpw thWw. AhnsS \nsd ssZhamb btlmshp IpsImp Hcp bmK]oTw ]WntbWw; AXnt Ccnp sXmSphncpXp. sNm IpsImp \nsd ssZhamb btlmhbpsS bmK]nTw ]WntbWw; AXnt \nsd ssZhamb btlmshp tlmabmK AntWw. (Bh\]pkvXIw 27:2-6)) AXn\ptijw A\p{lnsbpw im]nsbpw hgnIsfpdnv tami Ahsc {]t_m[nnp. Cu kvamcIfpw _en]oThpw ]qoIcnp Ignm P\w cmbn ]ncnv sKcnkow aetashp A\p{Klhpw G_m aetashp im]hpw {]kvXmhntWw Fv Ah Bm]np. ( Bh\]pkvXIw 11:2-630 CXm, Rm Cp A\p{Klhpw im]hpw \nfpsS apn shpp. Cp Rm \ntfmSp Bm]np \nfpsS ssZhamb btlmhbpsS I\I \n A\pkcnpp Fn A\p{Klhpw \nfpsS ssZhamb btlmhbpsS I\I A\pkcnmsX Cp Rm \ntfmSp Inp hgnsb hnpamdn \n Adnnnm A\yssZhfpsS ]nmse sNpp Fn im]hpw hcpw. \o ssIhiamphm sNp tZip \nsd ssZhamb btlmh \ns ISnbtijw sKcnkow aetashp A\p{Klhpw G_m aetashp im]hpw {]kvXmhntWw. Ah KnevKmensXncmbn tamsc tXmncnsI Acm_bn ]mp I\m\ycpsS tZip tbmmsc ]Snmdtm DffXp. (Bh\]pkvXIw 11:2-630)) sKcnkow aetaepw G_m aetaepw \ntp tKm{Xtfbpw tami \nPsSpn. P\s A\p{Klnm sKcnkow ]Xn \nevtph: insatbm, tehn, sblqZm, bnmJm, tbmtk^v, s_\ymao. i]nm G_m ]Xn \nevtphtcm: cqt_, KmZv, Bti, sk_qeq, Zm, \^vXmen. ( Bh\]pkvXIw 27:1113 Ap tamsi P\tmSp InXp Fsm: \n tbmm IStijw P\s A\p{Klnm sKcnkow ]Xn \nevtph: insatbm, tehn, sblqZm, bnmJm, tbmtk^v, s_\ymao. i]nm G_m ]Xn \nevtphtcm: cqt_, KmZv, Bti, sk_qeq, Zm, \^vXmen. (Bh\]pkvXIw 27:1113))

sblqZ P\Xbvv tbdpitew F t]mse Xs iacnbmmv hnip `qanbmWv sKcnknw. kacnb ]mccyn sKcnknw ]Xw AhcpsS aXns tI{amWv. _n. kn. Amw \qmn sKcnknw ]Xn kans kacnb tZhmebw tbcpiteanse blqZmcpsS cmw tZhmebn\v kamcambn \nesImncpp. kacnbmm Bcm[npXpw s]cp\mfpIfn ]psImpXpw sKcnknw tZhmebn Bbncpp. {]Xyambsnepw ]tcmambn Imhmb tbip sKcnknw ]Xs ]cmainppv. tbip hgn \Sp oWnnp kpJm F iacy]Wn bmtm_nsd InWdn\cnsI shffw tImcphm h iacy{kvXobpambp kw`mjWnembncpp Cu ]cmaiw. "tbip AhtfmSp ]dXp: kv{Xosb, Fsd hmp hnizkn; \n ]nXmhns\ \akvcnpXp Cu aebnepw A sbcpiteanepw A Fpff \mgnI hcpp. \n AdnbmXns\ \akvcnpp; Rtfm AdnbpXns\ \akvcnpp; c sblqZmcpsS CSbn \ntm hcpXp. kXy\akvmcnI ]nXmhns\ Bmhnepw kXynepw \akvcnp \mgnI hcpp; Ctm hpancnpp. Xt \akvcnph Cs\bpffh BbncntWw Fp ]nXmhp Cnpp. ssZhw Bmhp BIpp; Ahs\ \akvcnph Bmhnepw kXynepw \akvcntWw.' (tbmlm 4:2124) CXn "Cu aebnepw A' Fv Imhv kpNnnpXv sKcnknw aesbpdnmWv.

Knt_mh, KnsebmZv, t\t_m ]X ( Gilboa, Gilead, Nebo Mountains ):

Mount Gilboa, Gilead, Nebo

  • Knt_mh ]Xw (Gilboa Mountain):
    bn{ktbense BZy cmPmhmb iu Knt_mh ]Xn s^enkvXyp t\sc bpw {]Jym]np. ( 1 iapth 28:4 Fm s^enkvXy HnpIqSn iqt\an ]mfbw Cdn; siuepw Fm bn{kmtbens\bpw HnpIqn Knt_mhbn ]mfbw Cdn. (1 iapth 28:4)) iu cmPmhv kzw Ipn hoWv acnpIbpw iuens ]p{Xmcmb tbm\mYm, A_o\mZm_v, saoiqh Fnh bpn sImsSpIbpw sNbvXtXmsS bpw Ahkm\np. ( 1 iapth 31:14 Fm s^enkvXy bn{kmtbent\mSp bpwsNbvXp; bn{kmtbey s^enkvXycpsS apn \np HmSn Knt_mh ]Xn \nlXmcmbn hoWp. s^enkvXy siuens\bpw Ahsd ]p{Xmscbpw ]npSpsNp; s^enkvXy siuensd ]p{Xmcmb tbm\mYm A_o\mZm_v saoiqh Fnhsc sImp. Fm ]S siuensd t\sc Ghpw, apdpIn; hnmfnI Ah\n Zrnshp. hnmfnIfm Ah Ghpw hnjanembn. siu Xsd Bbp[hmlIt\mSp: Cu A{KNnI hp Fs IpnfIbpw A]am\nbpw sNmXncntXnp \nsd hm Ducn Fs IppI Fp ]dp. Bbp[hmlI Ghpw `bsXpsImp Ahp a\p hn; AXpsImp siu Hcp hm ]nSnp AXnt hoWp. (1 iapth 31:14)) bpm\cw iuens IpSpw_nse Zpcspdnv tIdn ZmhoZp cmPmhv Knt_mh ]Xs i]np. ( 2 iapth 1:21 Knt_mh ]Xtf, \nfpsSta atm agtbm s]msXbpw hgn]mSp\ne CmsXbpw t]mIs. AhnsSbtm hocmcpsS ]cnN FdnpIfXp; siuensd ssXem`ntjIanm ]cnNXt. (2 iapth 1:21))
  • KnsebmZv ]Xw (Gilead Mountain):
    tKm{X]nXmhmb bmtm_v Xs Ambnb\mb Acmay\mb em_m Xs NXnpp Fv a\nemnbtm ssZh\ntbmKw A\pkcnv Xs A\mb bnkvlmnsdbpw NmmcpsSbpw ASp Xsd ]nXmmcpsS tZitp t]mIphm ]pdsp; ( Dn 31:2 Atm btlmh bmtm_nt\mSp: \nsd ]nXmmcpsS tZitpw \nsd NmmcpsS ASptepw aSntmI; Rm \ntmSpIqsS Ccnpw Fp AcpfnsbvXp; (Dn 31:2)) bmtm_v Xsd `mcyamscbpw ]p{Xmscbpw Iqn bq{^okv \Zn ISv KnsebmZv ]Xn ]mfbaSnp. ( Dn 31:1721 As\ bmtm_v Fgptp Xsd `mcyamscbpw ]p{Xmscbpw HIpdp Ibn; Xsd IpImenIsf Hsbpw Xm kmZn kp Hsbpw Xm ]Acman kmZn arKkp Hsbpw tNpsImp I\mtZip Xsd A\mb bnkvlmnsd ASp t]mIphm ]pdsp; em_m Xsd BSpIsf tcmaw I{Xnm t]mbncpp; dmtl Xsd A\pff Krlhn{Klsf tamnp; Xm HmSntmIpXp bmtm_v Acmay\mb em_mt\mSp AdnbnmbvIbm Ahs\ tXmnmbncpp t]mbXp; Cs\ Ah X\npff kIehpambn HmSntmbn; Ah ]pdsp \Zn ISp; KnsebmZv ]Xnp t\sc Xncnp; (Dn 31:1721)) hnhcw Adn em_m bmtm_ns\ ]npSv KnsebmZv ]Xn Fn. hmZ{]XnhmZġp tijw Ah cayXbnembn. DSSn sNbvXtijw IpsImv Hcp bmK]oTw ]WnXv Hnp `Ww Ignp. em_m AXn\p sbKkmlZqYm (kmynsd Iqmcw) Fp t]cnp; bmtm_v AXn\p KteZv (kmynsd Iqmcw) Fp t]cnp; ( Dn 31:23, 25, 4448 DSs\ Ah Xsd ktlmZcmsc Iqnsmp Ggp Znhks hgn Ahs\ ]npSp KnsebmZv ]Xn Aht\mSp Hw Fn; em_m bmtm_nt\mSp Hw Fn; bmtm_v ]Xn IqSmcw ASnncpp; em_m\pw Xsd ktlmZcmcpambn KnsebmZv ]Xn IqSmcw ASnp; As\ Ah tim[\ Ignp; Krlhn{Klsf In Xm\pw; BIbm hcnI, Rm\pw \obpw Xn Hcp DSSn sNbvI; AXp F\npw \n\pw aty kmnbmbncns Fp Dcw ]dp; Atm bmtm_v Hcp Ip FSpp XqWmbn \nn; Ip Iqphn Fp bmtm_v Xsd ktlmZcmtcmSp ]dp; Ah Ip FSpp Hcp Iqmcapmn; Iqmcnt shp Ah `Ww Ignp; em_m AXn\p sbKkmlZqYm (kmynsd Iqmcw) Fp t]cnp; bmtm_v AXn\p KteZv (kmynsd Iqmcw) Fp t]cnp; Cu Iqmcw Cp F\npw \n\pw kmn Fp em_m ]dp; AXpsImp AXn\p KteZv Fpw ankvm (ImhamSw) Fpw t]cmbn: (Dn 31:23, 25, 4448))
  • t\t_m ]Xw (Nebo Mountain):
    acWn\papv tamibvv hmKvZ tZiw ImWm A\phZn eamWv s\t_m ]Xw. ]Xns ]nkvK sImSpapSnbn \nv sbcntlm ]Whpw tbcpiteapw hyambn ImWmw. s\t_m ]Xw tbmm\n\p Ingv NmhpISent\mSv sXmpInSp tamhm_v tZimWv. tami AhnsS acnp. sbcntlmhn \npw 7 ssaepw sbcpitean \nv 12 ssaepw ZqcamWv Cu ]Xn\v DXv. ( Bh\]pkvXIw 34:16 A\cw tamsi tamhm_v ka`qanbn\np sbcotlmhnsXnscbpff s\t_m]Xn ]nkvKmapIfn Ibdn; btlmh Zmhsc KnsebmZvtZiw Hsbpw \^vXmen tZisamsbpw F{^boansdbpw a\sbpsS tZihpw ]Snmsd IShsc sblqZmtZiw Hsbpw sXstZihpw Cu\Kcamb sbcotlmhnsd XmgvhoXn apX tkmhm hscbpff ka`qanbpw Ahs\ ImWnp. A{_mlmant\mSpw bnkvlmnt\mSpw bmtm_nt\mSpw: Rm \nsd kXnp sImSppsap kXyw sNbvX tZiw CXp Xt; Rm AXp \nsd Inp ImWnpXp; Fm \o AhntSp ISpt]mIbn Fp btlmh Aht\mSp Iev]np. As\ btlmhbpsS Zmk\mb tamsi btlmhbpsS hN\{]Imcw AhnsS tamhm_v tZipshp acnp. Ah Ahs\ tamhm_v tZip t_vs]tbmcnsXnscbpff Xmgvhcbn ASn; Fnepw Cphscbpw Ahsd ihpgnbpsS ew Bcpw Adnbpn. (Bh\]pkvXIw 34:16))

tbcpiteans\ Npnbp ]X (Mountains surrounding Jerusalem):
tbcpitew ]Xfm Nps \KcamWv. Imhmb tbip IbdnbXpw, hn{ianXpw, kcnXpw, {]t_m[\ \SnbXpw, GImXbn {]mnXpamb [mcmfw ]X ChnsSbpv.

  1. tamcnbm ae (Mount Moriah):
    tamcnbm aebpsS Ncn{Xw Bcw`npXv Dn ]pkvXIn \nmWv. "Atm Ah: \nsd aIs\, \o kvt\lnp \nsd GIPmX\mb bnkvlmns\ Xt, Iqnsmp tamcnbmtZip sNp, AhnsS Rm \ntmSp Inp Hcp aebn Ahs\ tlmabmKw Ign Fp AcpfnsbvXp;' (Dn 22:2) A{_lmw ssZhn hnizknpIbpw aI bnkvlmns\ _en Ignm tamcnbm aebntep t]mIpIbpw sNbvXp. Fm ssZhw CSs]v A{_lmans\ XSp, ]npdp sImp Imn Ipcpn InS BpsIms\ A{_mlmw Xsd aI\p ]Icw tlmabmKw Ignp; ( Dn 22:914 ssZhw Inncp ep Ah Fn; A{_mlmw Hcp bmK]oTw ]WnXp, hndIp ASpn, Xsd aI bnkvlmns\ sIn bmK]oTnt hndInosX InSn; ]ns A{_mlmw ssI \on Xsd aIs\ AdptXnp In FSpp; DSs\ btlmhbpsS ZqX BImip\np: A{_mlmta, A{_mlmta, Fp hnfnp; Rm CXm, Fp Ah ]dp; _mesd ta ssIshcpXp; Aht\mSp Hpw sNcpXp; \nsd GIPmX\mb aIs\ Xcphm \o aSnmbvIsImp \o ssZhs `bsSpp Fp Rm Ctm Adnbpp Fp Ah AcpfnsbvXp; A{_mlmw Xes]mn t\mnbtm ]npdp Hcp BpsIm sImp Imn ]nSns]p InSpXp Ip; A{_mlmw sNp BpsIms\ ]nSnp Xsd aI\p ]Icw tlmabmKw Ignp; A{_mlmw B enp btlmhbntc Fp t]cnp; btlmhbpsS ]Xn Ah {]Xy\mIpw Fp Cphscbpw ]dphcpp; (Dn 22:914))

    GItZiw Bbncw hjġptijw ssZhns ZqX {]Xys CtX ev ZmhoZv cmPmhv ew hn, inbmbn ssZhw Ab almamcn anp InpXn\mbn btlmhbvv Hcp bmK]oTw ]WnXp. ( 2 iapth 24:1821 ApXs KmZv ZmhoZnsd ASp hp Aht\mSp: \o sNp sb_qky\mb Achv\bpsS Ifn btlmshp Hcp bmK]nTw DmpI Fp ]dp. btlmhbpsS I\{]Imcw KmZv ]dXpt]mse ZmhoZv AhntSp t]mbn. Achv\m t\mn; cmPmhpw Ahsd `rXymcpw Xsd ASp hcpXp Imsd Achv\m ]pdspsNp cmPmhnsd apn kmmwKw hoWp \akvcnp. bPam\\mb cmPmhp ASnbsd ASp hcpXp Fp Fp Achv\m tNmZnXnp ZmhoZv: _m[ P\s hnpamdphm Xhw btlmshp Hcp bmK]oTw ]WntbXnp Cu Ifw \ntmSp hnsephmphm Xt Fp ]dp. (2 iapth 24:1821)) tZhmebw ]Wnbm B{Kln ZmhoZns\ ssZhw ]nncnnsnepw Atlns aI itemtam cmPmhv tamcnb aebn CtX m\v alcamb Hcp tZhmebw ]Wn Ignnp. ( 2 Zn\hrmw 3:1 A\cw itemtam sbcpitean Xsd A\mb ZmhoZnp btlmh {]Xy\mb tamcnbm ]Xn sb_qky\mb Hmsd Ifn ZmhoZv hwIqnbncp ep btlmhbpsS Bebw ]Wnhm XpSn. (2 Zn\hrmw 3:1)) _n. kn. 587/586 s\_qJZvt\k cmPmhns ssk\ym \innsSpXphsc itemtams Bebw \m\qdne[nIw hjw \ne\np. Fgp]Xp hjġptijw, _m_ntem ASnaXzn\nv aSnsbnb blqZm AtX ev Bebw ]p\\nnp. _n. kn. Hmw \qmn, sltcmZ cmPmhv LS\bn amw hcpn IqntepI \Sn; ]ooSv CXv sltcmZmhns t{Xw Fdnbsp. Cu tZhmebamWv Imhmb tbip ipoIcnXv. ( tbmlm 2:1516 IbdpsImp Hcp Nn Dmn BSpamSpItfmSpw IqsS Fmhscbpw ssZhmebn \np ]pdmn. s]m hmWn`mcpsS \mWyw Xqnfp taiIsf adnnp; {]mhpIsf hnphtcmSp: CXp ChnsS\np sImpt]mIphn; Fsd ]nXmhnsd Bebs hmWn`ime BcpXp Fp ]dp. (tbmlm 2:1516)) hopw F. Un. 70 tdma N{Ihnbmbncp Titus s B{IaWn, Imhv ]d hmpt]mse "Int Ip tijnmsX' \ioIcnsp. ( ambn 24:12 tbip ssZhmebw hnpt]mIptm injym Ahp ssZhmebnsd ]Wn ImWntXnp Ahsd ASp hp. Ah AhtcmSp: CsXmw ImWpntbm? CSnpt]mImsX Int Ip ChnsS tijnbn Fp Rm kXyambnp \ntfmSp ]dbpp Fp ]dp. (ambn 24:12))

  2. sKmevtKmYm ae (Mount Golgotha):
    \mep kphntijfnepw Htct]mse tcJsSpnbncnpXpt]mse Imhmb tbiphns\ IpcninXv XetbmSnSw Fap sKmevtKmYm aebnembncpp. Cu ew tbcpitew \Kcn\v hfsc ASpmbncpp.

    • XetbmSnSw Fapff sKmevtKmYm F ep Fnbtm Ahp Ibvp Ienb hop IpSnm sImSpp; AXp cpNnt\mnbmsd Ahp IpSnm a\mbn. Ahs\ {Iqin Xsd tijw Ah Nonp Ahsd hkv{Xw ]IpsSpp, (ambn 27:3335)
    • XetbmSnSw Fapff sKmevtKmYm F etp Ahs\ sImpt]mbn; Insh Ienb hop Ahp sImSpp; Aht\m hmnbn. Ahs\ {Iqintijw Ahsd hkv{Xw Chp CXp IntWw Fp ]IpXnsNbvXp. (asmkv 15:2224)
    • XetbmSnSw F ep Fnbtm Ah AhnsS Ahs\bpw Zpjv{]hrnmscbpw, Hcps\ hepw Hcps\ CSpambn, {Iqinp. (epsmkv 23:33)
    • Ah tbiphns\ Itddp; Ah XmXt {Iqins\ NpapsImp F{_mb`mjbn sKmevtKmYm Fp t]cp XetbmSnSw F etp t]mbn. (tbmlm 19:17)

  3. Henhv ae (Mount Olivet):
    Ing tbcpteant\mSp tNp ae\ncbmWv Henhv ae. kphntijfn ImWpXpt]mse Imhmb tbiphns CltemI PohnXnse ]e {][m\ kw`hġv kmyw hln aebmWv Henhv ae. Imhv kzntev BtcmlWw sNbvXXv Henhv aebn \nmsWv AtmkvXe{]hnI kmnpp. ( Asm: {]hrnI 1:911 CXp ]dtijw Ah ImsI Ah BtcmlWw sNbvXp; Hcp taLw Ahs\ aqSop Ah AhcpsS ImgvNp adp. Ah t]mIptcw Ah BImintep Dpt\mptm shhkv{Xw [cn cp ]pcpjm AhcpsS ASp \np: Keoem]pcpjmtc, \n BImintep t\mn \npXp Fp? \nsf hnp kzmtcmlWw sNbvX Cu tbiphns\ kzntep t]mIph\mbn \n IXp t]mseXt Ah hopw hcpw Fp ]dp. Ah sbcpiteanp kao]p Hcp iv Znhks hgn Zqcap Henhpae hnp sbcpiteantep aSntmp. (Asm: {]hrnI 1:911)) ]e Znhkfnepw Imhv cm{Xn ]mXv Henhvaebn Bbncpp. Ah "Znhtk\ ]I ssZhmebn D]tZinp t]mp; cm{Xn Henhvaebn t]mbn ]mpw.' (epsmkv 21:37) "tbipthm Heohvaebntep t]mbn.' (tbmlm 8:1) s]klbvv cp Znhkw apv, hnip ambnbpsS kphntijw 24, 25 Aymbfn hnhcnp bpKmyspdnpw ssZhcmPyspdnpw D injymtcmSp Imhns henb {]`mjWw [Olivet Discourse] \SnbXv Henhv aebn shmbncpp.

    Hmim\ Znhkw IgpXpnpdv tbcpiteantep hnPb Pm{X Bcw`nXpw Henhv aebcnsI t_v^mKbn \nmbncpp. ( ambn 21:12 A\cw Ah sbcpiteant\mSp kao]np Henhv aebcnsI t_v^mKbn Fnbtm, tbip cp injymsc Abp; \nġp FXnscbp {Kman sNphn; AhnsS sInbncnp Hcp s]IgpXsbbpw AXnsd Ipnsbbpw \n DSs\ ImWpw; Ahsb Agnp sImp hcphn. (ambn 21:12)) Imhmb tbip s]klm BNcWn\pw, Ipm\ m]\n\pw, Ay Amgn\pw tijw kvtXm{XKoXw Be]nnv t]mbXv Henhp aebntembncpp. ( ambn 21:2630 Ah `nptm tbip Aw FSpp hmgvn \pdpn injymp sImSpp: hmn `nn; CXp Fsd icocw Fp ]dp. ]ns ]m\]m{Xw FSpp kvtXm{Xw sNmn Ahp sImSpp: Fmhcpw CXn \np IpSnn. CXp At\Ipthn ]m]tamN\nmbn sNmcnbp ]pXnb\nbanpff Fsd cw; Fsd ]nXmhnsd cmPyn \ntfmSpIqsS ]pXpXmbn IpSnpw \mhsc Rm apncnhffnbpsS Cu A\p`hn\np C\n IpSnbn Fp Rm \ntfmSp ]dbpp Fp ]dp. ]ns Ah kvtXm{Xw ]mSnbtijw Henhvasep ]pdspt]mbn. (ambn 21:2630)) Imhmb tbiphns\ ImWnpsImSp cm{Xnbn injymcpsamv {]mnm t]mb sKvsia\ F tXmw Henhp aebpsS Xmgvhmcnembncpp. ]gb\nban Henhp aebpsS ]cmaiw ZmhnZpcmPmhns aI\mb A_vimtemans bp{]Jym]\tmSv A\p_nmWv. hyk\Nn\mb ZmhoZv cmPmhv t]mbXv Henhp aebntembncpp. ( 2 iapth 15:30 ZmhoZv Xe aqSnbpw sNcnnSmsXbpw \Sp IcpwsImp Henhp aebpsS Ibw Ibdn; IqsSbpff P\samsbpw Xe aqSn IcpwsImp Ibdnsp. (2 iapth 15:30))

  4. kotbm ]Xw (Mount Zion):
    tbcpiteans \Kc aXnepIġv ]pdv nXn sNp Hcp sNdnb IpmWv kotbm. Fm thZn kotbms\ ZmhnZns \KcambnmWv ]etmgpw ]cmainpXv. ( 1 cmPmm 8:1 ]ns btlmhbpsS \nbas]Iw kotbm F ZmhoZnsd \Kcn\np sImphtcXnp itemtam bn{kmtbaqmscbpw bn{kmtbafpsS ]nXr`h\nse {]`pmcmb kIe tKm{X{][m\nIsfbpw sbcpitean itemtam cmPmhnsd ASp Iqnhcpn. (1 cmPmm 8:1)) ( 2 Zn\hrmw 5:2 itemtam btlmhbpsS \nbas]Iw kotbm F ZmhoZnsd \Kcn\np sImphcphm bn{kmtbaqmscbpw bn{kmtbafpsS ]nXr`h\ehmcmb tKm{X{]`pmsc Hsbpw sbcpitean Iqnhcpn. (2 Zn\hrmw 5:2)) sltm ]Xnsbpw hnip\mSp apgphtbpw A]c\maambnpw kotbms\ D]tbmKnnpv. ( ko\ 48:2 almcmPmhnsd \Kcambn DcKncnbmb kotbm ]Xw DbcwsImp at\mlchpw k`qanbpsSbpw B\hpamIpp. (ko\ 48:2) ) Fm {InkvXob {]Xymi hnizmk PohnXn kotbm kzob tbcpitew BWv.

Chapter 1 - Introduction to the Biblical Holy Land

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ARTICLES AND SERMONS OF CHURCH FATHERS

ARTICLES AND SERMONS OF OTHER AUTHORS

ARTICLES IN CHRISTIAN EDUCATION OF EARLY CENTURIES

SHORT BIOGRAPHIES OF CHURCH FATHERS


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